13 symptoms and treatment of human papillomavirus in women
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that promotes active cell division of the body, which leads to the appearance of genital warts, warts and papillomas on the skin of the anorectal zone. Today it is known that there are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus, each of which has a different degree of carcinogenicity.
The greatest danger of this infection is that the papillomavirus in women can cause the development of a malignant tumor of the cervix, vulva or anus. Therefore, timely diagnosis and treatment of human papillomavirus infection minimizes the risk of cancer, especially of the cervix.
Considering the danger of this infection, we want to tell where the human papillomavirus comes from, how HPV infection manifests and how to cure it. We will also introduce you to modern methods of diagnosis and prevention of human papillomavirus in women.
Human papillomavirus: classification
Human papilloma viruses are commonly divided by the degree of their oncogenicity. Thus, all types of virus can be divided into three groups. Typing HPV allows you to select a group of patients at high risk of developing cancer.
The first group includes five types of non-oncogenic HPV, namely 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The listed types do not have oncogenicity, and therefore cannot cause cervical cancer.
The second group consists of human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 42, 43 and 44, which have a low degree of carcinogenicity. By themselves, representatives of this group cannot cause cancer of the cervix, vulva or anus, but can prepare a fertile ground for the appearance of malignant tumors.
The most dangerous is the third group of HPV, which consists of such types as 16, 18, 31, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 59 and 68. The listed HPV types have the highest degree of carcinogenicity. Almost 80% of women infected with these types of human papillomavirus sooner or later develop cancer of the cervix, vulva or anus, and the risk of breast cancer also increases significantly.
Human papillomavirus in women: causes of
The causative agent of human papillomavirus infection is the human papillomavirus DNA. This virus penetrates not only into the mucous layer, but also the deeper layers of the skin.
There are a number of factors that contribute to infection with the human papillomavirus, namely:
- congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Particularly high risk of infection with HPV during the first year after pregnancy, as carrying a child leads to changes in hormonal levels, and childbirth is stressful for the body;
- early start of intimate life;
- promiscuous sex life with frequent changes of partners;
- casual unprotected sex;
- HIV and AIDS;
- viral infections;
- chronic diseases of the sexual sphere;
- bad habits, such as alcohol and drug use;
- immunosuppressive therapy;
- frequent artificial abortion;
- sexually transmitted diseases;
- long-term use of oral hormonal contraceptives and others.
How is human papilloma virus transmitted?
Ways of transmitting human papillomavirus may be as follows:
- from mother to child during childbirth;
- contact and household.
The main is sexual transmission. Infection can be transmitted to girls not only during unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse, but also during petting.
If a woman suffers from human papillomavirus infection and there are condylomas or papillomas on the walls of the vagina or labia, then the child may also become infected during childbirth.
HPV contamination through handshake, personal hygiene items, pool water, sauna, etc., is also not excluded.
What is the danger of human papillomavirus in women?
Human papillomavirus, if the immune system is strong, is self-curing in 90%. But in the presence of a favorable soil, which is created by the above factors, human papillomavirus infection can transform into cancer of the vulva, cervix, labia, or anus.
As we already said, 70% of women with cervical cancer have identified human papilloma viruses in their blood, which belong to the third group. The most dangerous are considered 16 and 18 type HPV.
Human papillomavirus in women on the cervix requires the adoption of immediate therapeutic measures to prevent the development of dysplasia, and then cancer.
In addition, papillomavirus increases the risk of infection with other genital infections, and can also be transmitted to the child during passage through the genital tract.
What are the symptoms of human papillomavirus in women?
Each type of human papillomavirus has its own characteristics and specific symptoms. Consider them.
Human papillomavirus type 16 in women
Human papillomavirus 16 is a common type of HPV, which is detected in more than half of infected people. This type has high oncogenicity.
The pathogenesis of papillomavirus infection caused by HPV 16 is that the pathogen invades the genome of the body's cells and blocks the processes of natural antitumor protection, as a result of which papillomas, condylomas or warts appear on the skin.
In infected women, HPV 16 on the skin of the genitals and anorectal zone appear gray or brown flat with a rough surface spots of various sizes. Such eruptions are called bovenoid papulosis.
The second sign of HPV 16 infection can be genital warts, which appear not only in the genital area, but also in the eyelids, thighs, neck, armpits, etc.
The most dangerous manifestation of HPV 16 is intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervical mucosa, which belongs to precancerous conditions.
Human papilloma virus type 18
HPV 18 is another oncogenic virus that, embedded in the DNA of human cells, blocks the immune system and promotes the formation of benign tumors. Such tumors are prone to malignancy.
Papillomavirus type 18 in women can cause cervical cancer. This trend has been proven by scientists who have identified this type of virus in 70% of women with cervical cancer.
Signs of HPV 18 activation:
- genital warts on the skin of the genital organs and anus. When injured, these tumors may be bleeding. Condyloma most prone to malignancy;
- papillomas. These round tumors in color do not differ from the skin, but rise above its level. Papillomas most often affect the skin of the axillary region and genitals, but in advanced cases they can spread to other areas.
- warts, round eruptions that rise above the skin and have a red or dark color.
Human papillomavirus 31 types
HPV 31 is not only dangerous, but also a cunning oncogenic virus, since it can persist asymptomatically in the body for a long time.
Symptoms of human papillomavirus infection appear when a favorable soil is created in the body, that is, the immune system weakens under the influence of various factors (hypothermia, hormonal failure, exacerbation of chronic diseases, acute infections, sexually transmitted diseases, etc.). Moreover, this type of virus is equally dangerous for both female and male.
Papillomavirus type 31 in women is manifested by papillomas and warts in the genital and anorectal region. There may also be vaginal discharge, tenderness during intercourse, vaginal discomfort, and others.
Human papillomavirus type 33
HPV 33- This is another dangerous virus that can trigger a carcinogenic process.
Symptoms of human papillomavirus type 33 in women can manifest as warts on the genitals. The incubation period for this type of human papillomavirus infection is 12-16 weeks.After this time, genital lips, wide walls of the vagina and the cervix are determined on the genital lips. The peculiarity of HPV 33 condylomas is that they do not have clear boundaries and a flat surface.
Also, this type of virus can cause a precancerous condition, which is called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
Human papillomavirus type 35
Human papillomavirus type 35 in women may manifest the following symptoms:
- the formation of warts, which is more common in girls;
- genital warts that occur on the genitals and tissues of the anorectal region. This type of neoplasm progresses very quickly, turning into large spots;
- flat warts rarely appear in human papillomavirus infection of type 35. But, nevertheless, this type of warts is dangerous, since it often turns into a cancerous tumor.
These neoplasms are accompanied by severe itching, soreness and discomfort. Symptoms of intoxication in the form of fever, chills, excessive sweating and general weakness may also be present in women.
Human papillomavirus 39
Human papillomavirus type 39 is also included in the group of viruses with a high risk of oncogenicity. It should be said that this type of virus is most dangerous for women, since men are mainly carriers of infection.
Type 39 papillomavirus in women can cause the formation of both warts and papillomas or warts, which are prone to degeneration into malignant neoplasms. Most often, these tumors are localized on the walls of the vagina and cervical canal.
Human papillomavirus type 45
The papillomavirus type 45 in women is also highly carcinogenic. Moreover, the first signs of human papillomavirus infection may occur even 20 years after infection.
In the course of the course of human papillomavirus infection caused by a type 45 virus, there are three stages. The first stage is characterized by the appearance of genital warts and condylomas. The second stage of the disease is accompanied by cervical epithelium dysplasia. The most dangerous third stage, which is characterized by the development of cancer of the cervix, vulva or anus.
51 human papillomavirus
Symptoms of human papillomavirus type 51 in women are already apparent in the incubation period, which can last several years.In this period, single genital warts, peaked or flat warts develop in women. The classical localization of these tumors is the genitals (the walls of the vagina, the cervix, the small and large labia), but the process can also extend to the eyelids, groin and axillary region.
How does HPV infection 51 type can be seen in the presented photo.
Human papillomavirus type 52
A special feature of human papillomavirus type 52 in women is that it is activated mainly during the period when the body begins to age (after 35 years).
This type of human papillomavirus infection has the same symptoms as other types, namely warts and condylomas on the genitals, as well as cervical dysplasia.
Human papillomavirus 56
Human papillomavirus type 56 is characterized by a short incubation period (up to three months).
Symptoms of papillomavirus type 56 in women appear at the end of the incubation period and are characterized by the formation of genital warts and genital warts on a thin stalk, which are localized on the walls of the vagina and cervix. In advanced cases, cervical dysplasia occurs, which is a precancerous condition.
Human papillomavirus type 59
A distinctive feature of the human papillomavirus type 59 in women can be called the fact that warts and condylomas affect not only the genitals, but also the anus and rectum, which increases the risk of getting anorectal cancer.
The warts are quite large (up to 10 mm) and have a rough surface and uneven edges, as can be seen in the photo.
Genital warts have a thin leg and a pointed tip (see photo). Condyloma color may differ from skin color.
For papillomas characterized by rapid growth and spread.
Diagnosis of human papillomavirus in women in gynecology
Rashes on the skin (warts, warts and papillomas) can be easily seen during an external and internal gynecological examination (see photo).
Also during the HPV diagnostics, colposcopy can be used - examination of the cervix with a special device - a colposcope, which allows you to zoom in several times and even display a picture on a computer monitor.
But the most accurate diagnostic method is the analysis of the human papillomavirus, which is carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
PCR is used to confirm the presence of human papillomavirus in the female body, and to identify its type.
The “gold standard” of HPV diagnostics is Digene-Test, which determines the number of viral bodies in the body. Knowing the number of viruses in the body, we can estimate the risk of developing cervical cancer.
Also, all patients with suspected HPV are assigned to cytology.
How to treat human papillomavirus in women?
Treatment of human papillomavirus in women can be conservative and surgical.
Drug treatment of human papillomavirus
Tablets for human papillomavirus must have both antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. The following drugs are considered the most effective today:
Monotherapy with the above remedies is rarely used. Basically, one medicine is combined with another, for example, Allokin-alpha is prescribed systemically, and Epigen-intim cream is used locally. Also, therapy is supplemented with immunomodulators, such as Licopid, Immunomax and others.
Since genital warts, papillomas, genital warts and cervical dysplasia increase the risk of developing cancer, they are removed using minimally invasive surgical techniques, which include the following:
- laser removal;
- radio wave removal and others.
In severe cases, cervical amputation may be used.
Is there a specific prevention of human papillomavirus?
Today in our country two vaccinations against the human papillomavirus are certified in women, namely: Gardasil and Cervarix.
These vaccines protect the body against HPV 16 and 18 types, which most often cause cervical cancer. In developed countries in America and Europe, these vaccines are included in the girls' vaccination schedule. For example, in Germany, vaccination against HPV is shown to all girls over 12 years old. Vaccination is carried out in three stages.
In Russia, the vaccine can be purchased at the pharmacy network. The average cost of the drug is 7200 rubles.