Adaptation of fifth graders in school. Psychological adaptation of fifth graders: methods
So the primary school is over. This, at first glance, a simple event carries a lot of problem stones. And most importantly, parents forget that this event is associated with the end of childhood in children.
After the summer holidays the children go to school already innew quality, middle school students. They feel more mature. Their first day at school is more like a state of euphoria. After all, schoolchildren met after a long vacation. They have something to talk about with each other, there is something to share. Children experience an influx of energy and strength, they think that they are ready to absorb all the innovations that have appeared in school life. But this condition lasts, as a rule, for a short time, about 1-2 weeks, no more. And then the mood drops sharply, especially after the first independent and control. A wave of "joyless" everyday life is coming down on schoolchildren, lower grades than were in the primary school. And with this there is also fear: "And what will dad say to his mother?" And then comes the most difficult period of adaptation.
Parents often can tell a lot abouthow their child got used to a kindergarten, how many problems with adaptation was when he went to first grade. But if you ask them about the fifth-grader child and his problems with adaptation in school, such a question can cause bewilderment. Parents simply do not know about these problems, considering that the child is already an adult and himself is able to solve them. But just this period, coinciding with the beginning of the transition to adolescence, is very difficult in school life. The child has already grown up, has become independent, but still the adaptation of a fifth grader in the school requires tangible help from the parents.
The transition to the secondary school link for anythe child is an important stage in his life. He is experiencing a certain kind of stress, because now the conditions of his learning are changing, it is necessary to adapt to them. How successful this adjustment will be depends on many factors and not only on the child himself.
What is adaptation and disadaptation?
In simple words, adaptation -it is the body's ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This term can be attributed to both the physiological state and the psychological state. Let's talk about the latter.
Psychological adaptation of fifth graders isThe ability of students to invent new ways of behavior, depending on the situation, that is, to be flexible. In this case, flexibility should be understood as a personal quality. Its availability depends on various factors, but first of all on life experience.
Adaptation of fifth graders is a complex process, which, for certain reasons, may fail. And then there is an opposite effect, called disadaptation.
Types of maladaptation process in fifth graders
- Emotional - manifested in anxious behavior, in feelings about school activities, inexplicable fear of a teacher or classmates.
- Behavioral - the child behaves inadequately: displays aggression, indiscipline, often becomes the instigator of the conflict.
- Intellectual - is characterized by low motivational level regarding learning, reluctance to continue learning.
- Communicative - is expressed in an alarming and closed state, which does not allow the child to effectively build relationships with adults and peers.
Factors affecting the adaptation of fifth graders
Analysis of the adaptation of fifth graders shows thatThere are certain factors that have a direct impact on the success of this process. It is very important for parents and teachers alike to be aware of this area in order to be able to help the child in time. Adaptation of fifth graders is divided into internal and external.
External adaptation factors can be attributed to
- Influence of environmental conditions.
- Features of the organization of the learning process.
Competence of pedagogical influences.
- Adequacy of training requirements.
Features of education in the family.
- Ability to engage in extracurricular activities.
Internal adaptation factors include
- Features of the personal warehouse of the child: communicability, propensity to display independence and organization.
- Health status.
- Degree of development of the intellectual sphere.
Motivation to learn.
- Ability to maintain performance at a high level for a long period of time.
Signs of successfully and unsuccessfully passed adaptation
There are a number of features that can be guided by analyzing the adaptation of fifth graders. This is necessary in order to find the problem in time and to be able to help the child in time.
Characteristic signs of successful adaptation
- Satisfaction of the child with social contacts and interpersonal communication within the school community.
- Positive attitude of the student to the process of conducting lessons.
- The child does not have special difficulties in mastering the educational material.
- Sufficient level of independence in the preparation of homework.
To the signs of disadaptation can be attributed
- Disorders psychophysiological nature (anxious sleep, heavy lifting in the morning, frequent headache, lethargic state, chronic fatigue).
- Discontent over the relationship with classmates, fear of the teacher.
- Hiding emotions, unwillingness to talk about their impressions.
Why there are difficulties in the adaptation of fifth-graders
The transition to secondary school is a period whenthe child gradually begins to strive for an independent solution of life's difficulties and tasks. It must be remembered that the adaptation of fifth graders in school is associated with changes not only in the physiological plan, but also in the mental. The growing sense of growing up causes the child to defend his independence. Together with this, there is a desire to resist advices and precepts to the elders, denying almost any of their influence.
Since the fifth-grader is on the verge of transitionage, he has an aspiration to stand out among the school collective, to become a standard for others. To do this, the child begins to look for that character or family member to whom he could hold an equal, imitate him.
In this period, the child appears critical,which is closely related to the emerging self-esteem. There are rudiments of reflection (a tendency to self-analysis, self-education). On the basis of reflexion and the emerging theoretical type of thinking, the child develops his own opinion and representation on various issues.
The role of parents in the adaptation process
At the beginning of the school year, it is desirable for teachershold a special parent meeting. Adaptation of fifth graders is quite a multi-structural process that affects all the systems of the child's life. Therefore, at this parenting meeting, the most attention should be paid to this topic. It is very important that the class teacher be able to correctly communicate to parents all the nuances and aspects of such a difficult process as adaptation to the middle link. After all, most of the parents depend on the successful course of adaptation of the child.
Parents should know that in this periodThe child needs their support, in particular, the unconditional acceptance of himself and his actions. Do not abuse the child too much for misconduct or for unsatisfactory evaluation. It will be much better if the parents go to meet their child and try to help him to improve the situation. Adaptation of fifth graders at school will be much more successful if parents can create a clear regime for their child and will carefully monitor its implementation.
How can teachers help?
The process of getting used to changes must passcomplex, and for its successful passage, the help of subject teachers is needed, as well as a class teacher. In August, before the start of the school year, a teacher council for the adaptation of fifth graders should be held for teachers, on which urgent issues should be considered in the framework of this topic.
In order to prevent possiblethe emergence of an uncomfortable state in children, the class teacher should first of all take care of creating the optimal psychological climate in the classroom. This can be achieved if, while seating children at desks, try to take into account their psychological compatibility, the wishes of their parents, as well as the individual characteristics of each. It will also be superfluous for the children to take a short tour of the classrooms in which they will study. Such tactics will help relieve tension and unnecessary anxiety among students.
In addition, do not forget that an important role inthe decision of the difficulties of the adaptation period is played by the parent meeting. Adaptation of fifth graders should be one of the key issues that should be covered throughout the adaptation period, which lasts about a year.
Important aspects of psychological diagnosis
An important role is played by the diagnosis of adaptationfifth-graders. The methods used for this purpose are designed not only to show the current state of the child, but also help in predicting the occurrence of future problems. In addition, such techniques can provide information on the causes that do not allow successful adaptation processes.
It is clear that all methods shoulda specialist with a psychological background. On the basis of the work done, he must draw up a special document-reference, entitled "Adaptation of the fifth graders". A reference of this kind may include a program to study the phenomenon, a listing of the methods used, as well as an interpretation with the results and basic recommendations to teachers and parents.
The psychologist needs to remember that all methodsshould be valid, that is, they correspond to the age characteristics of children, as well as the problem being studied. Otherwise, the psychologist will receive distorted diagnostic results, his help in this case will be zero.
Questionnaires that can be used in this case
Undoubtedly, one of the most complex processes,which occur in the life of the school, is the adaptation of the fifth graders. Diagnosis in this case should include a variety of tests and techniques. Very well recommended a variety of special questionnaires. Immediately I must say that the teacher council for the adaptation of fifth graders, of course, gives teachers an idea of what signs correspond to the successfully completed adaptation of students. But only one knowledge of teachers can not be relied on in assessing the psychological state of schoolchildren, so the use of techniques becomes necessary.
- "Attitude towards learning subjects".
"Feelings in school."
- "The features of an ideal teacher."
The questionnaire on "Attitude to academic subjects", asrule, gives information about the inclinations and abilities of the child. Thanks to the questionnaire "Feelings at school" you can determine the level of adaptation of the whole class, and not a single student. "Features of an ideal teacher" - this is a technique that can help identify teachers' mistakes, which hinder the successful adaptation of students.
Method "Colored letters"
Do not forget that during the transition tothe middle section of the child experiences great stress, which is called "adaptation of fifth graders." Techniques work very well if they are directed at the unconscious sphere of the child. One of these options is the "Colored Letters" method. It enables the psychologist to obtain information about the presence of psychological comfort or discomfort in schoolchildren in a variety of lessons. In addition, using this technique, you can identify the most stressful school activities for each individual child.
The test is provided in the form of a form on whichleft side imprinted the names of the studied school disciplines, and on the right - a chain of empty squares. The psychologist asks the students to take the colored pencils and paint the square in front of each object with any color. The colors used can be repeated. After that, the specialist conducts the processing of the data obtained, relying on the color values for Lusher, as well as prescribes recommendations for the adaptation of fifth graders. The psychologist's recommendations should be strictly followed by teachers and parents, as this can greatly help the child.
"Open letter to parents"
The process that occurs during the transitionchildren from the junior level to the secondary level, is the inevitable adaptation of the fifth graders. Diagnosis must necessarily be based on a comprehensive study of a particular class or individual child. To obtain objective results, several methods should be used simultaneously.
"Open letter to parents" is a method,which is directed at the conscious sphere of the schoolboy. It is one of the most frequently used, because usually with the parents the child can be more frank than with other adults. This makes it possible to obtain accurate results.
The student's response form contains the beginning of the sentence,which he needs to continue. They are all focused on his school life. In particular, this test provides information about some levels of adaptation, usually about social and psychological. In addition, this technique reveals the characteristics of the student's relationship with classmates and teachers, and in some cases helps identify the causes of maladaptation.
We must not forget that a psychologist should strive forto the complex conduct of work, which is the diagnosis of the adaptation of fifth graders. Techniques should be selected very competently, taking into account the age characteristics of children.
The test proposed by Phillips
This technique is very relevant forfifth-graders, as they often experience a feeling of uncertainty, fear, excitement, which, naturally, negatively affects their general well-being and the process of mastering knowledge.
The Phillips technique is used to determine the levelanxiety of children associated with staying in an educational institution, as well as provides an idea of the possible causes of such a condition. This test is very unfolded can answer the question of how the adaptation of fifth graders is successful. The methodology works equally well for both middle and lower school age. The test has 58 questions, so it should be carried out when the students are not too tired from the lessons. For each question, students should give either a positive or a negative answer. After conducting the procedure, the psychologist counts the results obtained, using the key to the test, and composes the interpretation. It is very convenient to provide already processed data in a diagram form, so immediately the difference in the indicators will be clearly visible.
Such a problem as the adaptation of fifth graders,requires increased attention from both teachers and parents. You can not let this process go on alone, you must always monitor the child's mental comfort and try to control his emotional state. After all, how successfully this stage will be passed in the life of a child depends not only on the quality of the current knowledge acquired by it, but also on the overall attitude to learning and work.