Analysis of enterprise competitiveness. Basic concepts
Competition (comes from the Latin word"Сoncurre", which means "colliding") is a rivalry of independent economic entities for their segment in the sales market and economic resources. Competitiveness, respectively, is the ability and ability of enterprises, industries, goods to compete for the clientele, position, place in the economic pyramid, etc. - depending on the type of economic unit. The analysis of product competitiveness makes it possible to identify the weak and strong sides of competing companies, and to increase the competitiveness of their products by improving its quality, introducing innovative methods and technologies.
Analysis of enterprise competitivenessshows that the level of its competitiveness directly depends on the degree of support that it can receive from the state in the form of loans, insurance, exemption from part of taxes, subsidies, providing up-to-date information on the market situation, etc. In conditions of support of the producer by the state, measures to increase the competitiveness of enterprises can be carried out on a national scale, taking into account the situation on the market, and in accordance with the current problems of the producer.
There are such concepts as "perfectcompetition "and" imperfect competition ". Perfect competition represents a situation where there are many consumers and producers on the commodity market; sellers (producers) occupy such a small part of the market that they can not dictate the conditions to others. Imperfect competition implies a significant quantitative difference between consumers and producers (some are few, others are many); In this case, the competition consists in suppressing other producers and superseding them.
Impressive competition in variousforms: in the form of monopoly (monopolistic competition) and oligopoly. Monopoly is a form of ownership in which ownership of something belongs exclusively to one subject (object) or group of persons: the right to manufacture, sell, purchase any product or product. It is realized due to the setting of prices, monopolistically high or low. As a rule, there are antitrust organizations. Oligopoly is a type of economic market, when not one firm prevails over the branch of any type of commodity, but several (as a rule, 3 or more participants).
The goal of any competition is the acquisition of the most profitable position in the market for the sale of its products.
Analysis of enterprise competitivenessis determined by the competitiveness of products, which is its ability to stand out against the background of similar goods and be exchanged for money in appropriate conditions. The competitiveness of goods is determined by such factors as the production activity of enterprises, the efficiency of the work of the design bureau, the work of foreign economic organizations engaged in selling goods on foreign markets, and so on. It is also necessary to take into account the close relationship between the competitiveness of the product and its quality and technical level (although these concepts are not equivalent).
Each product has several stages of its ownexistence, which are schematically expressed by the "curve of the life cycle of the goods." The first stage is introduction, one of the most costly periods in which the manufacturer must convince the consumer that the product is commercially useful. Next, the stage of growth, during which the demand for goods is growing rapidly. And, finally, the stage of maturity, when the demand for goods has reached its peak and is now gradually declining. The final period is the stage of aging, when the demand for goods falls and as a result comes to naught. Correct calculation of the product life cycle helps to assess the competitiveness of the goods in the dynamics, which allows you to make the necessary conclusions and avoid unnecessary costs, and also to predict the further development of the sales market
The analysis of enterprise competitiveness andanalysis of product competitiveness is a qualitative or quantitative characteristic of the product. A single criterion is a simple characteristic, for example, the price of a good. The complex criterion, in turn, is divided into group and general. The group criterion includes the quality level, the level of novelty, the image, the price of consumption, the information content of the product. A generalized criterion takes into account such a factor as the product rating.
In a market economy, competitivecan be considered an enterprise (company, firm), a long period of time being profitable. The analysis of the enterprise's competitiveness in this case includes indicators that determine its competitiveness:
- share in the global and domestic market;
- the amount of net income per worker employed in the production;
- the total number of people engaged in production;
- the number of main competitors.