As practice shows, in 19-25% of casestumors arising in the genitals, anechoic formation in the ovary is revealed. Diagnosis of the true tumor in the appendages area causes the appointment of an urgent examination and surgical treatment. Often, ovarian, follicular and yellow body cysts are common.
The follicular cyst is a one-chamber fluid formation, provoked by anovulation of the dominant follicle.
In the cyst of the yellow body, anechoic contents are found inside the ovulated follicle.
The main methods of diagnosing cysts is ultrasoundwith additional dopplerographic examination in the tumor itself and its blood flow wall, CT and MRI, bimanual examination, and also laparoscopy, therapeutic and diagnostic. It should be noted the importance of ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of fluid clusters. Follicular cysts are always characterized by the presence of ovarian tissue along the periphery. Cystic diameter can be from 25 to 100 millimeters. Follicular cysts, in most cases, are single anehogenous formations with a revealing thin capsule and a characteristic homogeneous cluster. Behind the cyst in all cases there is an acoustic effect of increasing the signal. Anaecogenous formations are often detected in combination with manifestations of hyperplasia in the endometrium.
In many cases, the disappearance of the cyst occursspontaneously for two or three cycles of menstruation. This causes the use of a dynamic observation method with the mandatory application of cyst echobiometry. This tactic is due to the need for prevention of ovarian torsion.
In the cyst of the yellow body, regression tothe beginning of the subsequent cycle of menstruation. The echogram shows the location of the cyst in the back, above or on the side of the uterus. Anaecogenous formations may have 30-65 millimeters in diameter.
In the internal structure of the cyst of the corpus luteum, four variants are divided.
The first include anehogennye educationhomogeneous. The second variant includes homogeneous tumors with full or incomplete single or multiple septa having an irregular shape. The third type is formed by structures with wall structures, characterized by a moderate density. Smooth or mesh structures can be 10-15 mm in diameter. The fourth type includes tumors with the identification in their structure of zones of medium echogenicity of the medium-and fine-mesh structure located pristenochno.
On echograms endometriotic cysts are revealed in the form of rounded or moderately oval formations. Their size is 8-12 millimeters in diameter. Cysts have a smooth inner surface.
Dermoid cysts have characteristic features,manifested in the heterogeneity of their structure and in the absence of dynamics of their ultrasound images. In the cystic cavity, the typical for fatty structures, bone tissue elements and hair structures are often visualized. In this case, several types of terat are distinguished:
- completely anehogennoe with high sound conductivity formation, with the presence on the internal tumor surface of a small with a high echogenicity of formation;
- Anechogenous formation with multiple small hyperechoic dashed inclusions in the internal structure;
- a tumor with a dense internal structure and a hyperechoic congestion with slightly reduced or medium acoustic conductivity;
- a cystic-solid structure of formation with revealing of a dense component with a high echogenicity of an oval or round shape, having clear contours;
- the formation of a fully solid structure, including two components - dense (giving an acoustic shadow) and hyperechoic;
- tumors characterized by pronounced polymorphism of the internal structure.