Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge in St. Petersburg: its history and photo
Bolsheokhtinsky bridge in St. Petersburg is located across the Neva River. He connects the historical city center and Malaya Okhta (Krasnogvardeiskaya Square) through Tula street. This design, in addition to its direct purpose, is an architectural and historical monument. On the creation of the bridge, its designers and interesting facts will be discussed in this essay.
The history of the bridge. Start
Construction of the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge located in St. Petersburg was planned in 1829 by Emperor Nicholas I. However, due to the fact that the construction of a permanent bridge was impossible for technical reasons, only a boat ferry was located at this place.
By 1880, the Duma again raised the question of building a bridge that would allow the city center to be connected with Okhta, which was a suburb at that time. However, ferry carriers lobbied their interests in the Duma, discouraging from the start of construction, in order to protect the profitable business.
The route, which was supposed to pass along the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge, was repeatedly subjected to a route change. There were two possible options: from the Belyaevsky Stock Exchange to Komarovsky Lane, in the direction of Malaya Okhta, and also to Bolshaya Okhta from Palmenbakhskaya Street to Alekseevskaya Street to the Okhta Side. Nicholas II in mid-February 1906 approved the first route of the route.
In 1900, construction began on the Trinity Bridge, at the same time, preparation began for both the site for the construction of the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge and the development of project documentation. The development of the project task took more than a year, and in 1901 an international competitive selection was announced for a project of a finished structure with all the calculations.
16 projects were presented, including from foreign companies. Due to the fact that they did not meet the technical conditions, they were all rejected. In the end, the project that was out-of-competition, carried out by Russian military engineer GG Krivoshein in collaboration with his colleague V. P. Apashkov, was recognized as the best.
The main advantage of their project was the fact that in the middle of the bridge it was planned to create a movable span, which allowed to move freely along the fairway of the Neva.Nevertheless, the project required further work, which was attended by famous engineers of the time: G. P. Perederiy, P. M. Sheloumov, and S. P. Bobrovsky.
At the beginning of April 1907, the steamship Arkhangelsk, which carried out transportation to the embankment near Smolny and to Okhta, went to the bottom. As a result of the disaster, 39 people died. In connection with the collapse of the ship, Emperor Nicholas II decides to force the construction of the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge.
Start of construction
On the anniversary of the victory over the Swedes in the Battle of Poltava - June 27, 1909 - there were celebrations devoted to laying the bridge. G. G. Krivoshein, the author of the project, was appointed chief construction engineer, and G. P. Perederiy became deputy.
The main contractor was the Polish organization Rudzsky and Company. The adjustable span of the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge, as well as its complex mechanisms, were created at the Petersburg Metal Works.
For transportation of the bridge span structures, each of which weighed 3,660 tons, shells of decommissioned battleships were used, converted into giant pontoons having water ballasting.
The opening of the bridge in a solemn ceremony took place on October 26, 1911 in the presence of several ministers. However, some construction and finishing work continued until 1913.
Description of construction
The bridge structure is three-span, with adjustable central span. Sideways there are spans for pedestrians, made of metal. The bridge is almost 335 m long, the width between the bounding rails reaches 26.5 m, the roadway is about 18 m.
The spans are divided according to the following scheme: 134.3-44.7-134.3 m. The total weight of the metal structures used in the construction of the Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge (St. Petersburg) is 8929 tons, of which 1065 tons are the mass of counterweights that are in the wiring mechanism.
Stationary spans are made in the form of double-hinged arched trusses. Their height in the center is 22.6 m. For its time, the whole structure as a whole was an achievement of engineering thought and technological progress.
The main purpose of the bridge
The bridge, first of all, was intended for better communication between the two districts of the city. However, in addition to the movement of pedestrians and vehicles on the bridge, the task was to preserve navigation on the Neva.
Currently, all road bridge coating is made of a special cast mixture of asphalt and concrete. The pavements on the stationary spans are made of tiles, and on the adjustable span - of a special composition of polyurethane.
For security reasons, the pavement is fenced off by a metal fence that reaches a height of 650 mm and is framed by an ornament. The pillars and abutments of the bridge are finished in granite. Ostya on the left bank had a descent to the water, but it was dismantled in 1983 during the construction of a new highway along the Malookhtinskaya embankment.
Bolsheokhtinsky bridge layout
During navigation along the Neva River, for the unimpeded passage of numerous vessels along the river channel, the central span of the bridge is bred. This is done strictly on schedule from 2-00 am to 5-00 am. Of course, this brings certain inconveniences for the residents of the city, because if you are late for laying bridges, you will have to spend the night in a strange area. However, for many tourists from all over the world, building bridges is a very interesting and exciting action.
After the bridge, which is equipped with a spectacular multi-colored illumination, is divorced, the fascinating movement of beautiful liners on the Neva River begins.During the "white nights" thousands of tourists come to the embankments of St. Petersburg to see this action.
As previously called Bolsheokhtinsky bridge
Some tourists are interested not only in the history of this unique construction, but also in what was previously called the bridge. After construction began in 1909 and until 1917, the bridge bore the name of Emperor Peter the Great. As mentioned above, he received this name in honor of the 200th anniversary of the victory of the troops of the Russian Empire over the Swedes near Poltava.
However, after the revolution, it was renamed Bolsheokhtinsky. Currently it has the same name as it was received in 1917. In the Duma of St. Petersburg, proposals were made to return the original name to the bridge, but today everything remains unchanged.
No matter how surprising it sounded, but the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge in St. Petersburg has much in common with the Eiffel Tower, located in Paris. This bridge, like the French tower, is made using one technology, namely, metal riveting.
Thanks to it, it became possible to build such complex and large-scale structures.Riveting metal allows you to significantly enhance the entire structure as a whole, giving the necessary margin of safety. Both of these structures have a very impressive weight, the bridge is about 9,000 tons, and the tower is 10,100 tons.
Another interesting fact is also related to the riveting, which was used in the creation and installation of metal structures. Immediately after the creation of the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge, rumors began to spread around the city that one of the rivets, of which there were more than a million, was made not of metal, but of pure gold.
Ostensibly, it was installed by bridge builders for good luck, and then treated with a special compound so that it would not differ from iron rivets. There were many who wanted to find a gold rivet, but to this day no one has managed to do this.
Not only the necessary link
Bolsheokhtinsky bridge in St. Petersburg is a necessary connecting element between two districts of the city. However, in addition, it can rightly be called an outstanding engineering structure, as well as an architectural monument.
In the photo Bolsheokhtinsky bridge looks very majestic and monumental. Its aesthetic beauty is especially evident at night, when the amazing lights come on.And ships and liners passing along the Neva only underline the greatness and design of engineers. Also, do not forget that the bridge was built over a hundred years ago.
St. Petersburg is considered to be one of the most beautiful cities in Russia, in which there are a large number of various monuments of architecture and art. However, the Bolsheokhtinsky bridge could not only perfectly fit into the urban artistic ensemble, but also become an independent landmark, which pleases many tourists who come to admire the “Venice of the North”.