Economic systems of human societies: historical types and traditional economics
Traditional economics is the oldest variation of the economic and social order. First of all, let's see what the economic system is and what its main functions are. At any stage of the historical process and in any of its variations, human society had at least three spheres of its own realization: spiritual, political, and economic. And it was the economic system that determined the features of the latter.
The economy is a set of processes: from the system of labor and production to the final redistribution of material goods and their consumption. It is no secret that all spheres of social life are closely interrelated and influence each other. For this reason, the economic system is formed depending on the characteristics of society as a whole and itself has an impact on them. In practice, this means thatserfdom of peasants was the brainchild of feudal society with its vassal structure, land grants and subsistence farming. In turn, slavery became a fundamental feature of ancient civilizations as a result of their historical and political development. But at the same time, the presence of slaves in the East does not at all indicate the slave-owning nature of the countries, since slaves were not the basis of the economic mechanism. Accordingly, slavery did not leave such a significant imprint on other spheres of life, as in Europe, did not become a catalyst for the emergence of the legal system of free citizens, scientific achievements of free thinkers and so on. However, its unique world was formed there.
Variations of economic systems
Different social organisms at different times and on different continents had completely different economic systems. The most striking example for modern man are the liberal economies of Western countries and the centralized economy of the not so long ago Soviet Union. IfLiberalism, praised by the West, allowed private owners to do the weather: enter into trade deals, produce goods and become employers themselves — the socialist system assumed the concentration of all productive resources, natural wealth and other production and financial levers in the hands of the state. Both the one and the second option has its advantages and disadvantages, however, the slowness of the planned economy of the USSR led to its early dissolution. The modern economy of Russia is based on liberal principles. Of course, any liberalism has its limits. Pure does not exist in any state. The government inevitably retains certain levers of control. Having defined the concept of the economic system, again delve into the history and deal with the concept of "traditional economy". Moreover, its principles are the oldest on the planet and starting for the development of all modern systems.
This type, as you can already guess, is inherent in archaic societies. The patriarchal, or, as it is also called, traditional economy is characterized by the fact that it is tradition and centuries-old taboos that determine how resources are used.Usually their distribution occurs on the basis of a hierarchical structure: the leader receives the largest land plots and other benefits, his closest associates are second in line for a piece of this pie. In their own interests, issues of production are solved: the construction of castles, labor duties of the lower strata of the population, and so on.