Education Systems Beyond Border: History
In the history of school education in Western Europe and the United States there are many periods of interest for modern Russian education.
Educational systems in Western Europe and the United Stateswere formed under the influence of powerful discoveries in natural science at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, including in the psychology of the child. At that time, reformist pedagogy was born, many ideas of which are relevant and in demand these days.
The Italian doctor Maria Montessori proposedthe formula of training "proceeding from the child". The Swedish writer E.Kay substantiated the method of natural consequences - the creation of exercises for the development of the child's natural forces. American educator John Dewey became the founder of the method of projects and pedagogy, focused on practical life skills.
During this period, newmodel of the school: "School of Action" by August Wilhelm Lai in Germany, "School of Life through Life" O. Decroli in France. There were international pedagogical organizations and movements proclaiming free, nature-friendly upbringing and education. In the first place - cognitive interests of students, taking into account individuality, stimulating activity.
The traditional class-lesson system was criticized because of strict regulation of the learning process and limitations in the child's actions.
"Reformed" pedagogy gave impetus toRevision of traditional education systems in Europe and the United States. In the 40-60s of the XX century, significant school reforms of the education system began. At the heart of the transformation was the desire to train initiative, independent, creative people, able to work at the level of advanced technologies. Another direction of reforms is the creation of a multivariate general education.
Reform of the American education system in 1961year put forward the principles of the mandatory "Five bases": English language and literature, mathematics, science, social sciences, computer technology. The rest of the subjects are courses of choice, of which there were about a thousand.
The educational system in Germany also took the form of"Basic subjects plus elective courses", as well as introduced new profile areas - technical, agricultural, technical, technological, music, and municipal services.
In England, such transformations affectedpublic schools. The education system looked something like this: 50% of the study time was devoted to English and literature, mathematics, religion, physical education; 50% - packages of compulsory subjects by choice - humanitarian, natural science, mathematical.
The educational system in the United States was also reformedthe direction of working with gifted children at the level of state programs. There were "superstages" for gifted children under five. The schools selected talented children (the main criterion - the ability to think outside the box) and passed the testing. About 35 thousand gifted students received benefits for admission to the best universities in the country. For the preparation of future schoolchildren, governmental programs "Start" and "Sesame" were created, within the framework of which pre-school classes for children were organized, and 130 educational TV programs for preschool children appeared.
In the 60-80s of the XX century foreign schools were influenced by experimental schools, which tested new methods of teaching.
"Open School" was a full-time educational institution: in the first half - lessons, in the second half - group classes (theater, sightseeing, drawing, walking).
"School without walls" helped without additionalcosts to reduce classroom occupancy and increase interest in the learning process. The basic disciplines were studied at school, and elective courses were conducted at industrial enterprises, offices, etc.
"Alternative School" in the US servedopposition to the class-lesson system - each student has an individual training plan; classes in scientific centers, libraries, museums; Involving parents in the learning process.
Undoubtedly, educational systems abroad developed in the humanistic direction, focused on the personal development of children, and also widely introduced profile training and specialization.