Establishment of the patriarchate in Russia - strengthening the independence of the church
The natural completion of the separation processesRussian Orthodoxy from the throne of Constantinople and the formation of an independent Russian church structure was the establishment of the patriarchate in Russia. This event was predetermined by both subjective and objective reasons of natural historical development.
Having received baptism, Russia in many matterschurch organization depended on Constantinople. At first metropolitans in Russia became the sent Greeks, which was not at all like the Russian princes. Already Yaroslav the Wise tried to stop this practice, erecting without the permission of the Patriarch of Constantinople the metropolitan department of Hilarion, Russian by birth. And although this foreign policy did not last long (from 1051 to 1555) due to foreign policy turmoil, later Yaroslav's grandsons returned to the choice of a metropolitan from the Russians. During feudal fragmentation, the Orthodox Church contributed to the unity of the Russian lands around the common faith. An important role in the transformation of Moscow into the center of the unification of all principalities was played by the transfer of the Metropolitan there. The further development of the Russian state (with its theory "Moscow - the Third Rome") predetermined the establishment of the patriarchate in Russia. The Florentine Union of 1439, which proclaimed the unification of Catholicism and Orthodoxy, was rejected by the Russian hierarchs, which enabled Metropolitan Jonah and his successors to determine the ways of the church's development from now on. But the very establishment of patriarchate in Russia took place only 150 years later: in the hardest conditions of the socioeconomic crisis after the oprichnina and the Livonian War.
Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, not differing either acutemind, nor an active domestic policy, but a pious and ecclesiastical, in 1586 raises the question of the complete independence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the fallen Constantinople. Most researchers note that there could not have been without the influence of Fedor's adviser, Boris Godunov, who possessed remarkable state talents. It took several years to harmonize this step with the existing patriarchies, therefore the establishment of the patriarchate in Russia occurred in 1589, when the Patriarch of Constantinople Jeremiah ordained Job, the protege of Boris Godunov, in such a high order.
Since then, the Russian church has become real andnominally completely independent organization. We can say that Godunov's visionary plans were fully justified, since the establishment of the patriarchate in Russia contributed to his elevation to the throne. It was Job, as a religious leader, played an important role in this. During and after the Troubles, the institution of the patriarchate in our country grew increasingly stronger due to the instability of secular power. Soon, the secular and spiritual power entered into the most bitter struggle that the king won. Finally, the church structure was subjected to a complete restructuring under Peter the Great. Over the next 200 years, the head of the church was the state authority - the Holy Synod. The new institution of the patriarchate in Russia occurred after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1917, when Tikhon was elected patriarch at the local council. At the moment, the Orthodox Church is headed by Kirill and continues to play an important role in the spiritual and social development of Russia.