Expressive speech and its types
For each person speech is the most importantmeans of communication. The formation of oral speech begins from the earliest periods of the child's development and includes several stages: from screaming and babbling to conscious self-expression through various linguistic devices.
There are such concepts as oral, written,impressive and expressive speech. They characterize the processes of understanding, perception and reproduction of speech sounds, the formation of phrases that will be voiced or written in the future, as well as the correct arrangement of words in sentences.
Oral and written forms of speech: concept and meaning
Oral expressive speech actively involvesarticulation organs (tongue, palate, teeth, lips). But, by and large, the physical reproduction of sounds is only a consequence of the activity of the brain. Any word, sentence or phrase first represents an idea or an image. After they are fully formed, the brain sends a signal (order) to the speech device.
Written speech and its types are directly dependent onof how developed the oral form of speech, since, in fact, this is the visualization of the same signals that the brain dictates. However, the characteristics of written speech allow a person to more accurately and accurately pick up words, improve the sentence and correct what was written earlier.
Thanks to this, written speech becomes moreliterate and correct in comparison with the oral. Whereas for voice, the timbre of the voice, the speed of the conversation, the clarity of the sound, the intelligibility, the written speech are characterized by important indicators: the clarity of the handwriting, its legibility, and the arrangement of letters and words in relation to each other.
Studying the processes of oral and written speech,experts make up a general concept of a person's condition, possible violations of his health, as well as their causes. Violations of speech function can be detected both in children with a still not fully formed speech apparatus, and in adults who have suffered a stroke or suffer from other diseases. In the latter case, speech can be fully or partially restored.
Impressive and expressive speech: what is it?
An emotional speech is called a mental process,companion understand different types of speech (written and oral). Recognizing the sounds of speech and their perception is not an easy mechanism. The most active in it are:
- zone of sensory speech in the cerebral cortex, also called the Wernicke zone;
- auditory analyzer.
Violation of the functioning of the latter provokeschanges in the impressive speech. As an example, we can cite the impressive speech of deaf people, which is based on the recognition of spoken words on the movement of the lips. At the same time, at the heart of their written impressive speech is the tactile perception of volumetric symbols (points).
Schematically, the Wernicke zone can be described asa kind of card file containing sound images of all words learned by man. Throughout his life a person turns to these data, replenishes and corrects them. As a result of the same defeat of the zone, the sound images of words that are stored there are destroyed. The result of such a process is the impossibility of recognizing the meaning of spoken or written words. Even with excellent hearing, a person does not understand what they say (or write).
Expressive speech and its kinds is a process of pronouncing sounds that can be countered with impressive speech (their perception).
The process of formation of expressive speech
Beginning with the first months of life, the child learnsperceive the words addressed to it. Directly expressive speech, that is, the formation of the idea, inner speech and utterance of sounds, develops as follows:
- The humming.
- The first syllables, as a kind of walking.
- Simple words.
- Words related to an adult lexicon.
As a rule, the development of expressive speech is closely related to the manner in which and how much time parents devote to communicating with the child.
The volume of vocabulary, correct settingsuggestions and the formulation of children's own thoughts is influenced by everything that they hear and see around them. The formation of expressive speech occurs as a result of imitation of the actions of others and the desire to actively communicate with them. Attachment to parents and relatives becomes the best motivation for the child, stimulating him to expand vocabulary and emotionally colored verbal communication.
Violation of expressive speech is a directconsequence of deviations in development, the result of injuries or illnesses. But the majority of deviations from the normal development of speech are amenable to adjustment and regulation.
How to detect violations of speech development
A study of the speech function of children, conductingtests and the analysis of the received information are engaged by doctors of speech therapists. Examination of expressive speech is conducted in order to identify the child's grammatical structure of speech, to learn vocabulary and sound. It is for the study of sound production, its pathologies and their causes, as well as for the development of a correction procedure for violations, that the following indicators are studied:
- Pronunciation of sounds.
- The syllabic structure of words.
- Level of phonetic perception.
Accepting for examination, qualifiedThe speech therapist clearly represents what exactly is the goal, that is, what kind of frustration of expressive speech he needs to reveal. The work of a professional includes specific knowledge of how the survey is conducted, what kind of materials should be used, and how to formalize the results and draw conclusions.
Taking into account the psychological characteristics of children,age of which refers to preschool (up to seven years), the process of their examination often includes several stages. Each of them uses special bright and attractive visual materials for the named age.
Sequence of the survey process
Thanks to the correct formulation of the processsurvey, it is possible to identify different skills by studying one type of activity. Such an organization allows you to fill in more than one point of the voice card for a short time in a short time. An example is the request of a speech therapist to tell a story. The object of his attention are:
- pronunciation of sounds;
- skills of using a voice device;
- The type and complexity of the proposals used by the child.
The received information is analyzed, summarized and entered into certain graphs of speech cards. Such examinations can be individual or conducted for several children at the same time (two or three).
The expressive aspect of children's speech is studied as follows:
- Learning the volume of vocabulary.
- Observation of word formation.
- Exploring the pronunciation of sounds.
Also of great importance is the analysis of impressive speech, which includes the study of phonemic hearing, as well as monitoring the understanding of words, sentences and text.
Causes of violation of expressive speech
It should be noted that communication between parents andchildren who have a disorder of expressive speech, can not be the cause of the violation. It affects only the pace and general character of the development of speech skills.
Unequivocally about the reasons leading to the emergence ofdisorders of children's speech, no one can say. There are several factors, the combination of which increases the likelihood of finding such deviations:
- Genetic predisposition. The presence of violations of expressive speech from one of close relatives.
- The kinetic component is closely related to the neuropsychological mechanism of the disorder.
- In the prevailing majority of cases, the violatedexpressive speech is associated with the inadequate formation of spatial speech (namely, the zone of the parietal temporo-occipital intersection). This becomes possible with left-hemispheric localization of speech centers, as well as in cases of functional disorders in the left hemisphere.
- Insufficient development of neural connections, accompanying organic damage to the cortical areas responsible for speech (as a rule, in right-handed people).
- Unfavorable social environment: people whose level of speech development is very low. Expressive speech in children in constant contact with such people may have deviations.
When establishing the probable causes of speech disorders,do not exclude the possibility of deviations in the work of the hearing aid, various disorders of the psyche, congenital malformations of the articulation organs and other diseases. As already proved, full-fledged expressive speech can be developed only in those children who are able to correctly simulate the sounds heard. Therefore, timely examination of the organs of hearing and speech is extremely important.
In addition to the above, infectious diseases, insufficient brain development, trauma, tumor processes (pressure on brain structures), hemorrhage into the head tissue can become the causes.
What are the violations of expressive speech
Among violations of expressive speech most oftenoccurs dysarthria - the inability to use speech organs (paralysis of the tongue). Her frequent manifestations are chanted speech. Not infrequent manifestations of aphasia are violations of the speech function, which has already been formed. Its peculiarity is the preservation of the articulatory apparatus and full hearing, but the capacity for active use of speech is lost.
There are three possible forms of a disorder of expressive speech (motor aphasia):
- Afferent. It is observed if the postcentral parts of the dominant cerebral hemisphere become damaged. They provide the kinesthetic basis necessary for full movements of the apparatus of articulation. Therefore, it becomes impossible to sound some sounds. Such a person can not pronounce letters that are close in form of education: for example, hissing or front-line. The consequence is a violation of all types of oral speech: automated, spontaneous, repeated, naming. In addition, there are difficulties with reading and writing.
- Efferent. Occurs when the lower parts of the premotorium are damaged. It is also called Broca's area. With such a violation, the articulation of specific sounds does not suffer (as with afferent aphasia). For such people, the difficulty is caused by switching between different speech units (sounds and words). With the distinct pronouncing of individual speech sounds, a person can not pronounce a series of sounds or a phrase. Instead of productive speech there is a perseveration or, in some cases, speech embolus.
Separately it is worth mentioning such a featureefferent aphasia as a telegraphic style of speech. His manifestation is the exclusion from the vocabulary of verbs and the predominance of nouns. Can be kept involuntary, automated speech, singing. The functions of reading, writing and naming verbs are broken.
- Dynamic. It is observed when the prefrontal regions, areas in front of the Broca zone are affected. The main manifestation of such a violation is a disorder that affects active, arbitrary productive speech. However, reproductive speech is kept (repeated, automated). For such a person, the difficulty is caused by the statement of thought and the questioning, but the articulation of sounds, the repetition of individual words and sentences, as well as the correct answers to questions, are not difficult.
A distinctive feature of all types of motor aphasiabecomes an understanding by a person of speech addressed to him, the fulfillment of all tasks, but the impossibility of repetition or self-expression. Speech with obvious defects is also common.
Agraphy as a separate manifestation of the disorder of expressive speech
Agrarians call the loss of ability tocorrect writing, which is accompanied by the preservation of the motor function of the hands. It arises as a consequence of the lesion of secondary associative fields of the cortex of the left hemisphere of the brain.
This disorder becomes comorbid withviolations of oral speech and as a separate disease is extremely rare. Agra is a sign of aphasia of a certain type. As an example, we can link the lesion of the premotor region to the disorder of a single kinetic structure of the letter.
In case of minor damage, sufferingBy agrarians, a person can correctly write down specific letters, but allow erroneous writing of syllables and words. Probably the presence of inert stereotypes and the violation of the sound-letter analysis of the composition of words. Therefore, it is difficult for such people to reproduce the required order of letters in words. They can repeat several actions several times, violating the general process of writing.
Alternative interpretation of the term
The term "expressive speech" refers not only to the types of speech and the features of its formation from the point of view of neurolinguistics. It is the definition of the category of styles in Russian.
Expressive speech styles exist in parallel withfunctional. The latter include book and spoken. Written forms of speech - this is a journalistic style, formal, business and scientific. They relate to book functional styles. Conversational is represented by an oral form of speech.
The means of expressive speech increase its expressiveness and are intended to enhance the impact exerted on the listener or reader.
The very word "expression" meansExpressiveness. Elements of this vocabulary are words designed to increase the expressiveness of oral or written speech. Often, a single neutral word can be selected several synonyms of expressive coloration. They can vary, depending on the degree of emotional stress. Also often there are cases when for one neutral word there is a whole set of synonyms having the directly opposite coloring.
Expressive coloring of speech can have a rich range of different stylistic shades. Dictionaries include special notations and notations for identifying such synonyms:
- solemn, high;
The use of expressively colored words should be appropriate and literate. Otherwise, the meaning of the statement may be distorted or get a comical sound.
Expressive speech styles
Representatives of modern science of language include the following styles:
Contrary to all these styles is the neutral, which is completely devoid of any expression.
Emotional-expressive speech actively uses three types of evaluation vocabulary as an effective tool to help achieve the desired expressive color:
- Use words that have a vivid value. This includes words that characterize someone. Also in this category are words that evaluate facts, phenomena, signs and actions.
- Words with meaningful meaning. Their main meaning is often neutral, however, when used metaphorically, they acquire a fairly vivid emotional coloring.
- Suffixes, the use of which with neutral words allows you to convey a variety of shades of emotions and feelings.
In addition, the generally accepted meaning of words and associations that are attached to them, have a direct impact on their emotionally expressive coloring.