GAZ-23 Volga: technical specifications, modifications

This car at one time was not just a means of transportation. Yes, and on the roads, he did not often met. The car was made by order of the KGB and was intended for the special services of the USSR. GAZ-23 is the legendary "catch-up". Let's take a look at what this car was and why it was used in operational events.

Special cars, which differed from civilian versions in terms of their enormous power and speed, but were unremarkable in appearance, have been used for operational activities ever since the first cars appeared. Naturally, such were in the USSR. While the automotive industry was still not very developed in a large country, workers of the special services were moving in foreign cars. Often used for this German and American cars.

After the construction of the Gorky Automobile Plant and the start of production of the first cars,The plant management was tasked with making special modifications to serial cars. So it all began. The plant produced along with civilian cars and special versions.

History of creation

In the 60s of the last century, the State Security Committee instructed the Gorky Plant to begin developing a passenger car for special tasks. The machine was intended for use in the performance of special operations. It was also supposed to use this car to accompany government tuples. The machine should have a higher power than civilian versions. At the same time the car should not stand out in the traffic gas 23

The project was given to the leading designer of the plant, Boris Akimovich Dekhtyar. The GAZ-13, the most powerful and most technologically advanced eight-cylinder engine together with the automatic transmission, was chosen as the power unit for the GAZ-23. The body was an ordinary serial GAZ-21.

In addition, in the development process, engineers applied a lot of unique at the time constructive, as well as technological solutions. So,the engine was installed with a slope along the axis of the crankshaft - the angle was 2 degrees. This was done in order to avoid contacting the motor with various mounted elements under the hood.

The V8 engine for the GAZ-23, without any improvements, could not be installed in a standard sedan. For these reasons, it was decided to carry out minor modifications. As a result, experts managed to adapt the body and engine compartment. Among the improvements on the engine, you can highlight the new oil pan, another exhaust manifold and many more alterations.

The engineering staff of the project spent a lot of time on development. Especially a lot of effort was spent on the brake system. She remained from the GAZ-21 and simply could not cope with the increased power. But this problem has been fixed. For the GAZ-23 Volga, the designers created a completely new braking system, the mechanisms of which were not so exposed to high temperatures.

Special car made for 8 years. For all this time, 603 copies of the model 21 have left the factory’s conveyors. Now this Volga car can be found only among collectors, in museums, or among fans of retro-technology.


The special car was designed in such a way that it could not be distinguished in appearance from the 21st model. Most of the external body parts on the GAZ-23 are completely indistinguishable from the same parts on the 21st Volga.

If you open the hood cover, then the radiator mask is immediately noticeable. Now it is significantly different from its predecessor. So, the right and left radiator mud flaps are completely unique. But the outer part of the hood lid is very similar to the previous model. But the interior is original, equipped with another amplifier.

The site, located behind the bumper, has special cutouts for the installation of radiator shutters. On the radiator body of the stove there is a special stamping. It simplifies access to the ignition distributor precisely when it needs to be removed from the vehicle.

The body has been seriously transformed. Amplifiers appeared in the form of metal strips for the front side members. The radiator received a full mask. Sedan GAZ-23 with all the reinforcing parts began to weigh 300 kg more.

Another feature - until 1964, the glass on the doors were of the type "triplex". And on its predecessor tempered glass is installed.Designers who worked on the creation of a special car, were confident and proved that triplex is very difficult to break.


Inside the car "Volga" looks very interesting. Immediately striking the handle to unlock the trunk lock from the inside. It is located between the back of the rear seats. As the unlocking mechanism, a thrust handle was used to control the position of the radiator louver. I must say that this pen was not easy. The part is positioned so that in the process of closing the rear door, it seems to be recessed, due to which the lock opens.Auto Volga

A GAZ-23 could start off with an unlocked trunk only with the right door open at the back, which is not very convenient. Such a function is made so that KGB officers do not accidentally forget to lock the tailgate.gas 23 Volga

As for everything else, the interior of the car is an exact copy of the GAZ-21. There is the same huge steering wheel with three spokes, behind which there is a speedometer. The dashboard is simple and straightforward. The ignition lock is located on the bottom left. To the right of it, the developers installed a radio receiver.Also in its place are analog clocks.

Technical information

The most interesting thing in the GAZ-23 Volga is its engine. I must say that this eight-cylinder engine had a capacity of 195 horsepower. The unit worked on gasoline A-93 or on the B-91 “Extra”. It was also possible to fill the car with 95th gasoline. This is a four-stroke, carburetor engine. We will dwell on it in more detail. The maximum torque of 186 Nm was reached at 4400 rpm. The maximum possible speed was 160 km / h. The fuel consumption of this power unit in the combined cycle ranged from 13 to 16 liters for every 100 km of run.

Automatic transmission for the 23rd “Volga” - a planetary type, with three stages. Transmission switch in automatic mode, and the shutdown - lever.

Motor and its features

Engine GAZ-23 - V8 ZMZ-23 with a volume of 5.5 liters. The motor has interesting features. So, in its crankcase, which is shifted forward relative to the middle of the motor, you can see four studs that hold the right engine mount. Right exhaust manifold is the same as that of the GAZ-13.

The 23rd model, unlike the “Seagull”, has a too narrow space between the right side member and the automatic transmission case.The right exhaust pipe, which runs from the exhaust manifold, was to pass through this gap. Therefore, engineers have provided a special cutout. In the floor, near the place under the left foot of the passenger made a special bulge. Under it and passes the exhaust pipe.gas 23

Motor, as already mentioned, set with a slope. This is done in order to raise the unit above the steering column. This slope provides minimal clearances between the exhaust manifold and the pipe in which the steering column is located.

Of the features you can also highlight the unique cushions of the front engine mounts. The base of this element is fixed on the front beam. The element, in which eight holes, is intended for fastening the motor. Which of these holes will be used to install the unit depends on which pillow you need to install - left or right.

On early models, M10 studs were used to mount the engine. At the base of the pillow, the hole diameter was 11 millimeters. Then they began to screw the M12 studs into the motor block. Therefore, the number of holes on the pillow increased. This complicated and made it almost impossible to tighten the nut that holds the engine to the pillow. By the way, attachments for the automatic transmission came up with the "Seagull".

Device exhaust system

GAZ-23 is a motorcade of the government and KGB officers, equipped with a two-stroke exhaust system. So, there was a right and left path. The muffler was borrowed from the 21st model. He is in a familiar place. Pipes have a traditional and simple form.

The left front exhaust pipe in the area of ​​the gas tank is connected to the rear left pipe. There is no connecting pipe between the two paths, and it was in the GAZ-21. Despite the similar design, the exhaust sound of the 23rd Volga was radically different from the 21st. He had a bigger and bass sound.

Automatic transmission

This box is significantly different from the one that is installed in the “Seagull”. These differences in control modes. So, there is a special lever that allows you to shift gears. The dipstick tube is a unique piece. And the probe itself - from the “Seagull”. As for the type of transmission, it is a hydromechanical three-stage "automatic".

The process of gear shifting was carried out using a special lever on the steering column. In position D it was possible to start the movement - the system switched gears in automatic mode depending on the speed and force of pressing the brake.The harder you press on the accelerator pedal, the faster the gearbox will change gears. For an ordinary Soviet motorist automatic transmission was a wonder. After all, all civilian cars of the USSR were staffed with “mechanics”.

Suspension system

The machine for special services was equipped with an independent, lever-spring, mounted on a special stamped detachable frame, suspension. The mechanisms themselves are fixed to the side members with bolts. Special gaskets are installed between the frame and the cross member. They perform the function of damping vibrations. So, the work of the suspension is not audible in the cabin. The front part is characterized by a system of levers that can rotate on the hinges.gas 23a1

Also in the design there are twisted springs and telescopic double-acting shock absorbers. The rear suspension is equipped with two semi-elliptical longitudinal springs. They work in tandem with two hydraulic shock absorbers. The sedan was equipped with 10-leaf springs. The thickness of each of them is 6.5 millimeters. "Volga" 23rd model has a high smoothness. No wonder it is called the "barge". The car seems to float down the road. However, the Volga was very heavy and clumsy.At high speeds, the car was heavily beaten in corners.

Brake system

Here the designers used the simplest drum brakes, but with modifications. The fact is that for GAZ-23 technical characteristics were improved to the maximum. The brakes from the 21st did not cope with the loads. Therefore, pads have been developed that are not afraid of high temperatures.

Cooling system

In its structure, it is very similar to the cooling of the “Seagulls”. There is a water pump, fan, radiator and other parts. There is nothing remarkable in the design. The cooling system was not modified by engineers (except that the volume and area of ​​the heat exchanger increased).


Along with the basic version of the sedan, several modifications were also made at the factory. So, GAZ-23A differs from the basic one in the presence of a manual gearbox. Index A usually denoted special cars. Proceeding from the same goals, the package had additional equipment - a special lock for the trunk, as well as two batteries.

"Volga" GAZ-23B differed from the base sedan more interesting exterior trim. On the windows were chrome edging. There was also chrome on the windowsill.They covered the left mirror (recall that only one rear-view mirror was used here). This car was supposed to be export, to serve as a counterpart of the same export GAZ-21.

Historians who study the domestic auto industry have managed to find in the archives of the Gorky plant information and technical documents for another modification - GAZ-23A1.gas 23a

However, no details on this version of the special car are known. The documentation only means that the GAZ-23A1 is a car with special equipment.

From the same specialists in the history of the domestic auto industry, you can hear that they produced a small number of 23 in the station wagon. In general, this is not even the 23rd, but the 22nd model. Under the hood of the car GAZ-23 wagon was the same eight-cylinder engine. However, this is unconfirmed information. There are no such cars now.

Cost of

Buy now this car is very difficult. These models were produced in small quantities. If the car is really needed, they can be from collectors or from other enthusiastic people. These people managed to keep the original appearance and did not do the GAZ-23 car tuning. But even if a person has such a car, he is unlikely to want to sell it.Price tags are just going wild - from 100 to 400 thousand dollars.

Advantages and disadvantages

The car had a lot of advantages. So, they distinguish good quality of the body - the metal is highly resistant to corrosion. Steel underwent phosphating procedures. Also, almost all parts and assemblies in this car can be replaced by others, from the 21st Volga. Many appreciate the appearance - to go unnoticed in the stream on such a car, you are unlikely to succeed. Along with this, there are also excellent aerodynamic characteristics. A huge plus is a powerful engine. Salon - spacious, comfortable and soft. The car had the best dynamic performance for that period. All those who went on it, emit a suspension - it is not only soft, but also confidently works out holes and hollows.gas 23 car tuple

There are disadvantages, but they are not very significant. The disadvantages include a lot of car weight. To manage such a machine is quite difficult - the design did not provide for power steering. There are no seat belts, and there is no reason to talk about the steering column regulation at all.


Today we plunged into the history of the legendary 23rd "Volga", or the so-called "catch-up."Now GAZ-23 is a very rare instance. Just as rare is the successor to the 24th model (the 24-24 series sedan and the 24-25 limousine escort vehicle). An eight-cylinder engine from a 5-liter ZMZ was also installed on it.

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