Gooseberry: varieties and their description. The best varieties of gooseberry with a photo. Gooseberries without thorns: varieties, description and care
It is not surprising that gooseberry was widely appreciated by gardeners. Its varieties differ in taste, color, size of berries, shape of bushes, growing conditions. In such a variety, everyone will find something that will delight him in the garden.
From the history of cultivation
The first information about the use and cultivation of the specified plants in Russia belong to the eleventh century. True, the name of the berry sounded different and had several options - agryz, bersen, kryzhbersen.
Up to the 17th century, gooseberries were mainly cultivated in monastery gardens. But with the development of agriculture and trade, he began to receive more widespread. The plant can be seen in greenhouses, botanical gardens and just in the estates.
Gooseberry, varieties of which at that time were not so diverse, was very often used for fencing the area. A big role in this was played by thorns plants. And only many years later, gardeners learned the full value of the fruits of this berry crop.
Active work has begun on the cultivation of new plant forms. Thanks to this, the best varieties of gooseberry were bred. The plant has received incredible success among Russian gardeners. There were many gourmets who appreciated the taste and benefits of berries.
At the beginning of the 20th century, gooseberries had to be forgotten, because the powdery mildew imported from America destroyed the plant almost completely. But the interest in an unpretentious berry was so great that after a short break it appeared again in the gardens.
Brief description of the plant
Gooseberry is a shrub in height from 120 to 150 centimeters. It is light-requiring, quite drought-resistant. The gooseberry bush is able to be updated, giving the basal processes. One plant can contain up to twenty shoots of different ages. The culture is able to grow in one place for forty years, but the greatest productivity of the bush is observed only in the first 7 - 10 years of the plant life.
Incredible yield among horticultural crops is precisely gooseberry.Varieties can be selected so that the consumption of fresh berries will be possible within three months. The number of berries collected from the bush increases significantly with cross-pollination of the plant. Therefore, the cultivation of several varieties of gooseberry on one site is a step towards increasing its yield.
Classification of cultural forms of shrubs
All existing gooseberry varieties are divided into three large groups. Each of them has distinctive characteristics and its own advantages. But plants are not without flaws.
- The European group includes gooseberries, varieties of which are distinguished by large-fruited and high quality berries. The bush is not able to give a large number of shoots. The plant propagates poorly with both green and lignified shoots. Gooseberries in this group are susceptible to powdery mildew.
- Gooseberry varieties belonging to the American group, have opposite characteristics - small-fruited, low taste quality of berries, the ability to form a large number of shoots. The plant is well propagated by cuttings and layering, has a high resistance to powdery mildew diseases.
- The best varieties of gooseberry, the most common in human activities, belong to the American-European (hybrid) group. They have a good taste of berries, their large size. Bushes are viable, high-yielding, relatively resistant to powdery mildew.
It is impossible to characterize each variety of gooseberry within the article for the reason that there are a huge number of them. Only therefore, the most common and widely demanded species will be considered here.
Description of gooseberry varieties
“Donetsk firstborn”, “krasen”, “neslukhovsky” are the best dessert gooseberry varieties cultivated in Russia and other CIS countries. Their brief description is:
- "Donetsk firstborn". The variety is bred at one of the experienced gardening stations in Donetsk. Belongs to the European group, differs in early terms of ripening. The berries are large, not hairy, sweet-sour to the taste, sweet during the full ripening period. Berry picking depends on weather conditions and is possible with different degrees of fruit maturity. Gooseberry variety suitable for fresh consumption and after processing.If the growing conditions of the plant are observed, resistance to powdery mildew infection increases. The most favorable for the cultivation of "Donetsk firstborn" southern areas of the country.
- Sweet gooseberry variety "Neslukhovsky" belongs to the American-European group. The plant is derived in the Lviv branch of the Institute of Horticulture of Ukraine. Differs in early terms of ripening, excellent taste, large size of berries, high yield, resistance to powdery mildew. All this allows us to rank the variety to one of the best. The high degree of spinousness of the bush is perhaps the only shortcoming of the variety. Harvest is used for fresh consumption, as well as for freezing.
- The gooseberry without thorn varieties "krasene" belongs to the American-European group. The branches of the plant hang like a willow, sometimes creeping, which gives the bush a special look. It is characterized by medium ripening time of the berries, their excellent taste. To prevent a decrease in yield, it is necessary to conduct rejuvenation of shoots in time, feeding the bush. Berries are suitable for various preparations, freezing, fresh consumption.
Very often, the varieties of berry crops are divided into groups according to the time of their ripening.
Early ripe varieties
Gardeners have a great opportunity to get a crop of gooseberries already in the first half of summer. To do this, just choose the right culture.
It is worth looking at the following early maturing varieties - "captain", "eaglet", "spring", "amber", "spring".
Gooseberry yellow varieties "Kuryiu Dzintars" is distinguished not only by the color of the berries, but also by their sweet taste and juiciness.
Mid-season varieties of gooseberry
None of the gardeners will not give up the harvest of berries, obtained in mid-summer. It is at this time that they are most in demand.
This group includes large varieties of gooseberry, such as "Belarusian", "malachite", "Russian", "green bottle", "date". It is worth paying attention to the culture of varieties "bun", "change".
Each of the presented species has certain advantages, thanks to which the variety has received high marks from gardeners.
Late ripening varieties
Berries, collected in late autumn, are particularly pleased with lovers to feast on gooseberries. Fruits differ in aroma, juiciness, bright shades of taste.
Gooseberry without thorn varieties "Masheka" is characterized by sour-sweet taste of the berries of an unusual creamy yellow color without pubescence. Fruits of the Ravolt variety have a dark red (almost black) color.
Gooseberry. Varieties for the Moscow region
Territories where the same crops grow can vary considerably in natural conditions. That is why breeders are forced to display different varieties of the same plant species, differing from each other in certain characteristics. Gooseberry is no exception. Varieties for the Moscow region, for example, are not suitable for cultivation in areas of the north. And the southern varieties will be unsuitable for cultivation in central Russia.
As experience shows, domestic hybrid varieties are most suitable for the Moscow region areas. These are such as "kolobok", "Pushkin", "Russian date", "captain" and some others.
The main distinguishing feature of a variety selected for a region should be its winter hardiness. It is the harsh conditions of low temperatures that most often do not tolerate plants.
One of the reasons for the widespread gooseberry in the gardens is that it is not picky about growing conditions. To get a good harvest is to follow only a few rules.
The shrub does not tolerate swampy and acidic soils, it can easily adapt to other species. The lack of oxygen and excess moisture - the most unfavorable conditions for the growth of culture. It survives well and gives good yields in sunny areas protected from cold winds.
The main care is to loosen the soil under and around the bush, remove weeds, apply fertilizer and timely pruning. With proper care, you can exclude the possibility of disease plants with powdery mildew.
Some gardeners carry out such a procedure as thinning the fruit. This should be done at a time when the berries are pea-sized. A large number of fruit began to result in the fact that the berries will be small, the plant will lose a lot of strength to ensure their ripening. Thinning improves crop quality.
The most favorable time for planting saplings is autumn. Planting material can be obtained independently by propagating the plant by layering and cuttings.
Great opportunities for the acquisition of new varieties of plants provide experienced gardening partnerships.