How to grow mushrooms? Technologies and conditions for growing mushrooms
Types of mushrooms for home cultivation
Before you decide which mushrooms you can grow yourself, you need to decide on the technology used. Experienced mushroom pickers emit several different methods, including primary and alternative. Beginners better to breed 3 types of mushrooms:
- oyster mushrooms;
The type of fungi largely determines the conditions in which they will grow. To be able to independently grow mushrooms, you need to use a special mycelium, which can be purchased at a specialty store.
How to prepare seed?
Growing mushrooms as a business and for your own purposes can be very profitable. To do this, prepare the seed. To do it yourself, you need to find overripe mushrooms in the forest, you need about 10 caps. Hats need to be separated from the stem and prepare a container with water. Need to add 3 tbsp. lalcohol, 1 g of potassium permanganate and 50 g of sugar in a bucket of water. Mash mushroom caps in your hands, add to water and mix thoroughly until smooth. Leave to infuse for 10 hours. Then strain. Mushroom spores should remain in the water.
You can also purchase ready-made mycelium completely any mushrooms. It may be dry or already slightly germinated, located in the substrate. It is necessary to carefully examine the prepared mycelium, as it should be without damage, with a pleasant aroma. Fruiting from each mycelium lasts for about 3-4 years.
To understand how to grow mushrooms in the garden, it is necessary to properly prepare the substrate. A beginner is recommended to start with straw or sawdust. For the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, it is best to take cereal straw. Wheat straw is considered the most productive. Substrate must be dry, without odors and mold.
Then sterilization of the substrate is carried out. Before you can sow mycelium, you need to eliminate all bacteria. The easiest way is to perform sterilization using a microwave oven.Pour the mixture into a heat-resistant container and add a little water. At the same time the substrate should get wet well. Place the bowl in the microwave, select the heating mode at the highest power and set the timer for 2 minutes. During this time, the water will have time to boil well. This will completely destroy the bacteria and prepare a nutrient medium for planting fungal mycelium. How to grow crops, will help to find out detailed instructions. After the substrate is prepared, the mixture should be cooled to room temperature and dried thoroughly.
Sowing mushroom mycelium
How to grow mushrooms yourself, interests a lot of people, since it will allow you to get a good and high-quality crop. To grow your own mushrooms, you need to take a shallow box, pan or baking sheet. The prepared substrate should be heated to a temperature of 22 degrees, but if the temperature in the room is appropriate, then you can not do this. Then the prepared mixture should be transferred to a container that should be wide but shallow. The prepared mycelium is carefully transferred to the substrate and mixed. The ratio of mycelium and substrate should be 1: 9.
For the successful growth of the root system, you need to create certain conditions for growing mushrooms. If the room is cool enough, then in addition you need to use the lower heating. The container should be located in a shaded area. In such conditions, the mycelium should mature for about 20 days.
Features of growing mushrooms
How to grow mushrooms after mycelium has spread in a nutrient medium? The container must be moved to a cool and somewhat darkened place so that bright sunlight does not fall. Well suited basement or a box for vegetables on the loggia. The air temperature should be 10-15 degrees.
The substrate should be lightly sprinkled with a layer of earth and watered, so that the soil was slightly moist. To prevent too rapid evaporation of moisture, cover the container with a damp cloth. Daily it is important to control the degree of moisture of the substrate and, if necessary, to spray it.
Depending on the type of mushrooms grown, you can make additional lighting. In the room where they will grow, there should be no mold and dampness, therefore, when mass-growing mycelium, you need to install a fan.
Champignons are among the most popular and favorite types of mushrooms. Mushroom cultivation does not cause any particular difficulties, so it can be done even by a beginner. These mushrooms grow best in dark and damp areas, in particular, such as:
- lumber room;
As a substrate, horse manure is mainly used, in which lime, gypsum and urea are added. Then all this is covered with a film and infused for 2 weeks. After the soil infusions, it is necessary to make rows in it and place the mycelium. Mushroom cultivation does not require the creation of certain conditions, the most important thing is that the temperature be no more than 20 degrees, and the humidity does not exceed 50-55%.
Mycelium grows over 3 weeks, during this period a white bloom appears on the soil surface. Then you need to sprinkle it with greenhouse earth and periodically spray water as the soil dries out. Mycelium begins to bear fruit in about 1-1.5 months, and you can harvest in 2-3 months. In order to get a good harvest, it is impossible to give the opportunity for the mushrooms to grow old, as this depletes the mycelium.
How to grow purple?
How to grow mushrooms ryadovki purple, interests many, as it is quite an unusual mushroom. Soil requirements are almost the same as for champignons. However, a number of conditions require certain conditions. First of all, it is necessary to ensure the correct temperature conditions, the thermometer should not rise above 15 degrees. Therefore, the best time to plant is spring or autumn. If you want to grow in the house, then you need to remember that they need enough fresh air and light, because otherwise the leg will be too long, and the cap will be small.
Care should be taken to ensure that the soil is moderately wet. However, an excessively wet earth can provoke an intensive proliferation of mycelium, and mushrooms may not appear from it. Fruits these mushrooms for 3-4 months.
Rowing as possible is grown in the garden. In this case, it is not necessary to know how to grow mushrooms in the garden plot, since in natural conditions they will grow independently.
In the garden, these mushrooms will survive the winter very well, if you additionally cover the beds with sacks and fallen dry leaves.
Growing oyster mushrooms
Many are trying to start a profitable business from scratch, so they are interested in how to grow mushrooms in the basement and what types the newcomer should pick up. It is best to start growing oyster mushrooms, as it is easiest for them to create the appropriate conditions. These mushrooms are completely unpretentious to the conditions of cultivation, and in taste are not at all inferior to other species.
For the cultivation of such mushrooms will need a room, it is best if it is a basement. You can grow them in open ground, but only in the summer. To ensure good growth of the mycelium, you can take straw, sunflower husk or sawdust. After steaming and preparing the substrate, you need to mix the mycelium with it, pour it all into a plastic bag and put it on a special rack for 3 days. Then you need to make several slots in the bag to ensure access of oxygen. In about 15-20 days, a mycelium will appear with small mushrooms, which will gradually grow.
How to grow shiitake?
In Russia, this mushroom became known relatively recently, but in its homeland, in China, it has long been in great demand, and it is widely used in cooking and medicine. By its appearance, it is somewhat reminiscent of meadow champignons, but it has a brown cap.Many novice mushroom pickers are interested in where to grow shiitake mushrooms and how to do it correctly to get a good result.
For the manufacture of substrate blocks will require sawdust or oak chips. The optimum volume of soil should be 5 liters. As an additive, you can take wheat grain or pearl barley. In addition, it is worth making about 10 g of chalk. Then the substrate must be soaked and kept for an hour. The remaining water is drained and the soil decomposed into packages. The latter must be tightly tied and kept warm for 3 days at a temperature of about 16 degrees. Mix the mycelium with the substrate and leave for 2 months in a warm place. The grown mycelium is best planted in a shady place in the garden or in the greenhouse with cucumbers and tomatoes, but if the daily temperature is not higher than 30 degrees.
Cultivation of white mushrooms
Expensive, tasty and fragrant are white mushrooms, which can only be found in the forest. So that you can eat at any time, you need to know how to grow mushrooms yourself. The substrate can be prepared just before planting the mycelium.
To do this, mix 5 liters of soil containing peat, sawdust coniferous trees and fallen leaves.Planting of the mycelium is carried out to a depth of approximately 20 cm in the prepared holes, the diameter of which is about 10 cm. The distance between the holes should be approximately 30 cm. the harvest will increase. Such a mycelium can bear fruit well up to 5 years.
How to grow mushrooms?
Summer mushrooms can be grown on sawn timber and stumps in the open field or greenhouse. The best substrate is wood, which can be fresh or aged for several days in water. Suitable for wood of almost all types of deciduous trees, with the exception of stone. Coniferous wood can also be used, but in this case the mycelium will be much worse to bear fruit.
For the cultivation of honey agaric, you need to collect mushrooms with well-formed caps in the forest. In a wet room with a concrete floor, one part of the wood should be put a layer of hats with plates down, and a second part of the wood should be placed on it and so construct a structure of 4-6 parts of wood.
Cover all this with wrapping paper, which needs to be moistened every day with water. With sufficient temperature and humidity of the air, the mycelium should grow to a depth of 4 cm and securely hold the wood together. Then the whole structure can be transferred to the garden and prikopat in the ground. In about 2-3 months, mushrooms will start growing.
You can grow your own mushrooms using unconventional or alternative methods. For this well suited:
- logs of deciduous trees;
- coffee grounds;
- use of special kits.
In the logs of deciduous trees need to drive a special birch cork, densely populated with fungal mycelium. This technology is used for growing:
- lion's mane.
For the cultivation of oyster mushrooms ideal coffee grounds, as it contains many nutrients, and it is prepared to colonize the mycelium. This is due to the sterility of the product. There are also special kits for growing mushrooms, consisting of a durable plastic bag with a prepared sterile seeded medium.
Growing mushrooms as a business can be very profitable, since approximately 20-30 days after creating the required conditions for mycelium, the first small mushrooms will appear. However, you need to wait some time until they grow up a little. It is possible to collect the first harvest of oyster mushrooms in about 30-40 days, and champignons - in 35-45 days. In order not to damage the mycelium, it is recommended to cut them with a knife.
You can store fresh mushrooms for a week in the package in the refrigerator. On the old substrate mycelium can bear fruit for 3 months.