How to plant an apple tree in spring, summer or autumn? Proper grafting of apple trees
Grafting crops is special. Not every gardener can boast this skill, which, in addition to a bountiful harvest, can also bring good earnings to its owner. In the process of grafting apple trees, it is necessary to know and observe many specific subtleties, which will be discussed in our article. This is where you can find information on how to plant an apple tree.
What is this procedure?
And now you are going to clean up your garden. But can you answer the question: “What is the grafting of an apple tree?” Why do gardeners perform this procedure? Grafting an apple tree is a method by which two completely different plants are combined into one whole. These specimens are divided into scion and stock. The tree on which another plant is grafted is called a stock.Graft is the branch that is planted to the main, independently functioning plant.The cutting chosen for the graft is taken from the one-year shoot. However, he must have at least three buds, and not be long. Otherwise, vaccination will not succeed. The most commonly considered procedure for an apple tree is planned in spring. But it can also be carried out in summer and autumn.
Why plant apple trees?
The reasons for grafting apple trees can be very different. But they all boil down, basically, to the following motivations.
- The desire to save space in the garden. This is done by obtaining several different varieties of apples from the same tree.
- The desire to get a low fruit tree by grafting on a stunted stock.
- Increase plant resistance to low temperatures.
- Rescue varieties with serious damage to the tree trunk.
In each question there are parties that few people know about. Experts say that even a wild apple can be grafted. Thus, we cultivate it. But there are limitations. It is advisable to do this before the tree reaches the age of four.
The secrets of gardeners
How to plant an apple tree and make it successful? To carry out a successful procedure, you will need a plastic strapping tape of at least two centimeters wide, and a length of up to twenty-five centimeters. Also prepare a graft pruner. To cover the wounds of wood suitable garden var or ordinary clay.
The plant chosen for inoculation should be perfectly healthy - free from wounds, chipping, with intact bark and excellent winter hardiness. If you are going to modify a vast and spreading tree, then be patient. Such specimens are grafted up to three years. The branches you have chosen for the implant procedure must be vertical. Do not try to deepen the cuttings in them too much. This will lead not to grafting, but to the decay of the plant. The instruments you use should be as sterile as the operating room. The cut of the handle must be made with surgical precision, without tubercles and potholes. It should be perfectly even, and the graft to the rootstock - well-fitting. The cut is not treated with barbs (it should be completely intact at all), only the binding is lubricated with it.There is another secret about how to plant an apple tree. To protect the stalk from the destructive actions of birds, place a crossbar directly above the structure.
The main methods of grafting apples
Methods for grafting apple trees include the following options.
1. Implantation in the lateral incision.
2. Vaccination for bark.
3. Copulation with the tongue.
4. Graft splitting.
5. Implantation in the butt.
How to plant an apple tree in spring?
At this time of year, the procedure under consideration, according to current trends, occurs in accordance with the lunar calendar. Gardeners try to follow the rules, observing all the nuances. When the moon is in one of the water signs of the zodiac, you can proceed to the procedure. Shanks for spring grafting apple harvest in early autumn. Or they do it in early spring, preferably before the first buds swell on it. The length of the scion should not exceed forty centimeters, and its cut should be even and sharp.
When grafting apple trees, be sure to keep clean. Your hands should be especially clean. Therefore, the best option would be to thoroughly wash them before vaccination.It is advisable to do it with ordinary soap. The tool you use should also be as clean as possible. Then proceed to making the cut on the apple itself. It should be big enough, but not too large - a bit larger than the size of your graft. Then the accretion will take place most easily. Also, the cut must be made as smooth as possible. To test this factor, simply attach a knife blade to it. If there are no gaps, it means that you coped with the task perfectly! After cutting the cut, it must be split and the graft inserted into it so that the top edge of the cutting is slightly separated from the main stem. This procedure is carried out very quickly. All this must be done before the incision begins to oxidize and dry.
After all the above procedures, the inoculation place is tightly tied, and the winding is covered with garden pitch. This is done in order to prevent various pests and protect the graft from drying out. After three weeks the harness is loosened.
Summer inoculation of apple trees by budding
Consider another way. How to plant an apple tree in summer? In this difficult matter your method will be your faithful assistant.For this method, we will need a pre-prepared (the day before the vaccination) a stalk of the desired variety grown from apple seed. From it we will remove the bud for budding. The flap with a bud and stem from foliage is taken from the middle part of the cutting and cut with a graft knife together with a part of the wood. Perform the procedure carefully. In the place that will be grafted directly to the stock, wood is cut off evenly.
One day before the procedure, the lower branches are removed on the stock - absolutely everything, after which the tree is watered abundantly. The next day, on the apple tree chosen by us, a cut of the bark is made with a tongue at the end fifteen centimeters from the soil. The graft is embedded in this tongue, and then wrapped with a cloth. The leaf stalk must be left free from windings. It is for him that we can understand whether the vaccination was successful. After three weeks, you will need to click on it, and if the scape falls off, then the budding is crowned with success. And if it turns black and limp, then this procedure will have to be repeated.
There are, of course, other ways of how to plant an apple tree in the summer.But budding is one of the most successful methods.
How to plant an apple tree in the fall and do it right? This question is very important and not devoid of meaning. After all, the tree must be planted so that the cutting has time to settle down before the onset of the first frost.
In the autumn, as in the summer, the procedure in question is produced by means of budding. If the vaccination takes place indoors, it is possible to use the method in splitting. Consider it. For this, the split itself is produced directly in the stock. Harvested cutting with a suitable cut and inserted into the designated place. The vaccination is sealed with plastic wrap, and the plant is placed in a room with a low above-zero temperature, where it will wait for the spring planting.
Now you yourself know a few basic ways of how to plant an apple tree.