How to prepare raspberries for winter? How to care for raspberries in the fall?
Traditionally grown on dacha plots, the most delicious and healthy raspberry has already given away the harvest. Winter is coming, and gardeners face the question of how to prepare raspberries for winter. Proper preparation is the key to a good harvest in the future, so it’s worth the effort. Sure, you need to know how to care for raspberries in the fall. One of the most important stages of rejuvenation and increase the productivity of raspberry bushes is their autumn pruning.
Why should you cut the raspberries?
Before answering the question of how to prepare raspberries for winter, we will determine the stages of work. This pruning, feeding, removing leaves and bending down the stems. Pruning a bush has several goals. First, all old, diseased and unwanted branches are removed. Secondly, competent pruning will help to significantly increase the future harvest and survive the shoots of the coming cold.Thirdly, the thinning of the bushes has a good effect on the quality of the berries, in well-groomed plantings they are significantly larger than in the neglected areas. Raspberries are prepared for winter in September or early October. Dates of the autumn works are important. Reducing the air temperature to negative values will not allow to carry out all the stages qualitatively, so you should not wait for stable cold.
Trimming technology: what you need to know
Taking care of how to prepare raspberries for the winter, it should be remembered that every stem should be cut at the very root. It is impossible to leave even small hemp: insect pests penetrate and multiply. Pruned to be two-year-old, have served their stems. It is simple to distinguish them - as a rule, they are dry and dark, distinguished by their appearance against the background of young, greenish shades and branches. They also remove broken, weak, diseased, sprouting sprouts that grow abnormally inside the bush, and young unwanted growth.
In the raspberry bush after pruning 5-7 strong, viable and healthy stems are left. When an ordinary planting on each meter length of the bed should not leave more than 10 shoots.Significant thinning of the bushes is the best preparation of raspberries for the winter, ensuring successful waiting out of cold weather.
Freeing raspberries from pests
When performing pruning, you must carefully inspect all the shoots. Often, pests overwinter and develop in raspberry stalks. For example, the crimson gallfly, common in many regions of Russia, lays eggs in the stem, causing irreparable harm to it. The affected branches are well defined visually - characteristic bulges appear on them, tearing the upper layer of the cortex. All cut stems should be burned. If this is not done, the pests will spend the winter well and will again live in raspberries, significantly reducing the yield.
To increase the yield of raspberries contributes to double pruning of the bush. This is a laborious but effective technique. It consists of pruning in the fall and early spring by 20–25 cm of the tops of the stems that have reached a meter height. This method stimulates the development of lateral shoots, which, in turn, also branch, forming new lateral stems with flower buds. As a result, a fan of strong side branches is formed on several main shoots, which not only contributes to an increase in the productivity of the bush, but also greatly simplifies the care and harvesting of it.With this method of growing raspberries should be done long intervals between the bushes - 60-70 cm minimum. Preparing raspberries for winter with this method of growing is of great importance: you can not skip the autumn pruning. It should be noted that this method is not suitable for raspberry remontant varieties. Gardeners who specialize in growing such breeds recommend cutting the bushes for the winter completely.
How to cook raspberries for winter?
Take care of the wintering berry bushes literate in the summer. Carrying out the necessary feeding, it is necessary to adhere to the established norms and in no case overfeed raspberries. It is excessive fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers that reduce the frost resistance of the bush. A special role is played by the plot where raspberries are grown. It should be well lit, the sunlight makes the shoots strong enough and able to endure the winter. After pruning under the bushes it is necessary to apply organic fertilizer (preferably humus) and dig up the soil layer. If the bed was mulched, it is necessary to remove the mulch - in the winter field mice can start there.
Raspberry: care in the fall
Pruning is the main, but not the only stage of preparing the bush for the winter. Usually raspberries are quite hardy, but cold weather can destroy flower buds.To prevent this from happening, gardeners successfully apply such a method as bending the bushes to the ground. That's what it's done for. Snow cover has always been considered the best shelter for shrubs and trees. Therefore, a raspberry bush, located in close proximity to the ground, is covered with snow even before the arrival of severe frosts. The average height of the snow cover in central Russia reaches 50-60 cm, which means that the bush, bent at a distance of less than half a meter from the ground, will overwinter without loss.
It is important to remember that it is necessary to bend down the shoots of raspberries so that they are completely under the snow. We can not allow the stems to remain above the snow cover, this is the most dangerous and cold zone, because near the snow the air temperature is the lowest. If raspberry bushes are planted on the trellis, they are bent one to the other, fastening to the bottom wire or pinning metal hooks to the ground. This should be done until stable negative daily average temperatures occur. In such conditions, the stems become fragile, and it will not be possible to bend them without breaking.
Before bending the stems to the ground, you need to remove the foliage from them, since the remaining leaves become wet and begin to rot, which can cause kidney burns.It is easy to remove the foliage from the stem: with a hand in a mitten, it is necessary to squeeze the shoot loosely and hold it from the bottom up to the top. This will allow you to break free from the leaves and not break off the flower buds.
That's all you need to know about how to prepare raspberries for winter. It remains to wait out the winter and in the spring, as soon as the snow melts, carefully release the stalks, which are bent to the ground. No need to rush things, you should allow the bushes to straighten themselves to take the desired shape and after some time cut the stems that could not survive the frost, sopralya or broke.