How to take an analysis of sputum: features of preparation, procedure and decoding
What test is sputum tested for? This is a frequent question. We will understand this article. The general analysis of sputum is one of the methods that help to clarify the diagnosis in the presence of pathologies of the respiratory system. Such a concept as sputum, refers to pathological discharge, produced in various diseases of the respiratory system. The production of a fairly large amount of secret at the same time speaks of serious pathologies in this area.
A very significant indicator in this are the features of the color of sputum, as well as the presence in it of impurities of a pathological nature. If a patient has an ordinary acute respiratory viral infection or some other diseases that do not pose too great a danger if they are present in the human respiratory system, then it has a light shade, there are no impurities in it.
How to take a sputum test?
In what cases is appointed?
The study is primarily assigned in the event that the patient is suspicious of various kinds of pathological processes that occur in the body.
The basis for the purpose of tests can be the following symptoms:
- breathing defects (when there is a feeling of a foreign body or interferes with sputum);
- frequent cough for no apparent reason;
- hoarseness due to blockage of the larynx;
- severe sore throat of a chronic nature.
In addition, sputum analysis is prescribed in the presence of such diseases that can develop in different scenarios:
Why is it necessary to take an analysis in cases where the diagnosis is already established? The fact is that in the study of the condition of a patient with an ailment already identified in him, the focus of the analysis is tracking the dynamics of recovery. A decrease or increase in sputum may indicate that the condition has either improved or worsened. That is why research in this situation is required in any case.
How to take the analysis of sputum, interests many.
Preparation for research and collection of material
Without special preparation to collect sputum is impossible. If the collection of secretions was conducted incorrectly, then saliva will become their main component, and this will interfere with the optimal analysis. As a result, as a result, violations will be found, but the study will still have to be repeated.
How to take the analysis of sputum for seeding, should tell the therapist, directly examining the substance.
There are the following collection rules to be followed:
- Before the procedure begins, you must thoroughly clean your mouth with a brush and dental floss. Should pay particular attention to language. Paste needs to be very well washed off, because it can also cause impurities.
- Inflamed throat is recommended to rinse with antiseptic solutions to destroy extraneous microflora. Dental rinse aid, iodine or soda can be used for this. The most important thing is that the guttural walls after this does not form a precipitate from them. The most suitable conditioner will advise your doctor or pharmacist at the pharmacy. Where to pass a general analysis of sputum? This can be done in any medical institution.
- In order to collect phlegm, special containers are used that resemble jars of the standard type for collecting excreta. It is necessary to expectorate and then spit out phlegm in one of these containers. The procedure can be carried out both at home and under medical supervision, the latter being optimal. However, many people are embarrassed to collect material with a doctor, and therefore prefer to do it at home.
- One of the main rules is to try to isolate the minimum amount of saliva during the procedure. Ideally, it should be absent altogether. To achieve the best result, you can spit as often as possible, as well as try to stop salivation for a while by drinking a small amount of ordinary water. In the process of spitting it is necessary to try to send saliva with its excessive content in the side cavities. Its presence in the analysis will cause the results that do not correspond to the actual state of affairs.
The collected material must be delivered in a special container to a specialist, and he either redirects him to another department for research in the laboratory, or he will take care of it himself, if he has the necessary equipment and authority.Procedures need to be carried out in the conditions of strict sterility.
How to take a sputum test is now clear.
The alarm should be sounded if the presence of:
- Charcot-Leiden crystals.
The presence of such elements indicates an incorrect material distribution in the body, the cause of which becomes a certain pathological process. The transitional stage from the examination of a primary character to a thorough study is called “microscopy”.
Patients often ask the question: how to pass a sputum test?
In order to accurately determine the characteristics of the composition, at the final stage, bacterial sputum culture is carried out in order to separate normal indicators from infection.
Stimulation of the formation of bacterial colonies is made in the substance. Thanks to this method, the “leaders” are determined, which are contained in the material in larger quantities, and they will become the largest colony in size.
After a similar procedure, the material is not ejected. Initially, another experiment is carried out, during which the resistance of bacteria to different types of drugs is determined, which contributes to the further prescribing of the correct therapeutic course.
This is the answer to the question: "How to pass a sputum test for bronchitis?"
Decryption of analyzes
With proper patient's expectoration and compliance with the package integrity conditions, prior to analysis, the material is considered reliable.
If, in the sputum, many enzymes were found to break down starch and sugar, as well as more than twenty-five flat tissue cells, then the fence was not made correctly.
The following indicators are considered normal:
- no bad smell;
- shade close to gray or white;
- no granular compounds, lumps, material is transparent and homogeneous;
- no purulent impurities and other pathogenic components.
Deviations from the norm
If abnormalities are found, this may indicate the presence of pneumonia, bronchitis and, in the worst case, cancer. Any group of diseases has its own symptoms.
With the transformation of most of the leukocytes into eosinophils, it is possible to assume the presence of bronchial asthma, very strong allergies, and infection with lung worms.
If more than twenty-five neutrophil bodies were detected, it means that the lung disease has become infectious.Bronchi or lungs affected. In this case, can develop: pneumonia, paroxysmal and chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis. It is important to know in advance how to pass a sputum test for tuberculosis.
If an infection is suspected, then bacposev is necessarily performed, thanks to which the bacterial content is determined with accuracy and the optimal treatment method is selected.