Immunological blood tests: decoding results
is a barrier that helps the human body to resist the effects of pathogenic microbes and other negative factors. A person is constantly in a state of defense against external pathogens. If everything is working normally, then the detrimental effect does not affect the state of health, as the protective field takes effect.
Immunological blood tests allow us to evaluate these important qualities of the body and understand whether it is able to fight harmful factors. Proper interpretation of the obtained indicators is very important. It should be carried out by a highly qualified specialist.
Types of analyzes
Immunological study of blood is carried out using different methods. Determining the method of analysis depends on the indicators that are being studied. The most popular are:
Each of the above studies differs in its method of conducting and those substances that are released from the blood plasma for study. Radioimmune research, for example, is characterized by fixing the obtained results by means of special meters.
These blood tests involve the determination of the level of hormones and immunoglobulins, which affect the function of reproduction. Sometimes the attending physician can refer the patient to a detailed study that shows, in addition to the usual ones, additional elements of the body’s protective barrier, namely:
- Immunoglobulins of classes A, M, G.
- Lymphocyte group cells.
- Circulating immune complexes.
- Components of complement.
The immunogram today is a very popular analysis.
Indications for study
There is an impressive list of indications that can be a reason for referring to immunological blood tests. The doctor himself must determine the method of conducting the study depending on the symptoms and complaints of the patient.The main ones are the following states:
- Hereditary predisposition to disorders in the immune system. If in the family of a patient someone suffered from such pathologies, then it is necessary to be checked without fail.
- Blood loss in significant quantities. The reasons may be very different.
- Viral or parasitic infection, including hepatitis, giardiasis, syphilis, herpes, etc.
- Oncological neoplasms of malignant nature.
- Autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, diabetes mellitus, etc.
- AIDS virus.
- Significant disruption of the endocrine gland system.
- Recurrent inflammatory processes in the lungs.
- Difficult to cure fungal lesions.
- Chronic inflammatory processes.
- Education on the skin of purulent origin.
- Mental disorders, including prolonged states of depression. Most often this affects the fair sex.
- Stay in places with a highly polluted environment.
Transplantation and donation
Also, a forthcoming organ transplantation is considered a mandatory pretext for referral to an immunological study, especially when it comes to children.Analysis is also important in the field of immunohematology, in particular for donors in the transfusion of blood plasma. To assess the protective qualities of the body, it can be assigned during pregnancy, as well as children and the elderly. Below we consider the transcript of the immunological analysis of blood.
Importance of analysis
To fully understand the purpose of the immunogram, it is necessary to realize its importance among other diagnostic methods and to consider in detail the indicators that it shows. The study of the protective properties of blood involves the study of its performance in the complex. It is important to properly assess the ability of the body to withstand pathogenic effects.
The immunologist should deal with the interpretation of the obtained results, since it is necessary to consider not only each component separately, but also the totality of all indicators. The test is assigned to patients of all age groups, including young children.
What are researching?
During the study, the following indicators are examined:
- IgA. These are proteins that are responsible for the protective properties of the mucous membranes. Often carry out an immunological blood test for allergens.
- IgE.It is an immunoglobulin that is active against parasites.
- IgG. Belongs to proteins of secondary immune properties.
- IgM. These are antibodies that are among the first to begin the fight against pathogens of infectious diseases. Immunological blood tests for all oftalmoinfektsii carried out increasingly.
- Antinuclear antibodies. Proteins, the production of which is activated against the background of the development of autoimmune diseases.
- AT-TH. They are antibodies to thyroglobulin. Immunoglobulins produced by the thyroid gland.
- ASLO. Antistreptolysin-O is an antibody that begins to be synthesized when infected with streptococcus. An immunological blood test for the composition of antibodies is very popular.
- Antisperm antibodies. These are proteins that are produced as a response to the Rh factor and other genes included in the erythrocyte group.
- AT-TPO. Immunoglobulins to thyroid peroxidase. They are proteins that are studied in the case of suspected autoimmune pathologies of the endocrine group.
- HLA-typing class 2. Indicator of compatibility of immunogenic biomaterials.
- Circulating complexes.These are elements that arise as a result of the interaction of immunoglobulins and a harmful microorganism.
When the immunological analysis of blood is deciphered, the doctor receives a complete picture describing the patient’s condition. If they are lower or higher than the norm, then an additional examination may be prescribed, for example, magnetic resonance and computed tomography, ultrasound, angiography, etc.
The results should also be compared with the symptoms and diseases in the history of the patient, as well as his immediate relatives. Here is an informative immunological blood test.
Norms and causes of deviations
The resulting immunogram implies an assessment of the totality of all indicators, and not one specific one. Thanks to this approach in interpreting the results of immunological analysis, it is possible to accurately assess the state of the protective properties of a person and diagnose many diseases. If the indicators deviate from the norm, this may indicate the following conditions:
- Norm IgA is in the range of 0.9-4.5 g / l.If the index is higher, then this may indicate the presence of autoimmune diseases, chronic pathological processes in the liver, hematological oncology, or severe poisoning with ethyl. Reduced rates are characteristic of cirrhosis of the liver, chemical intoxication of the body, as well as after therapy with immunosuppressive drugs.
- The norm of IgE ranges from 30-240 µg / l. Increasing the amount of protein is a characteristic feature of parasitic invasion, chronic inflammation in the airways and allergies. The lowered level is fixed if there are disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system, such as ataxia and dilation of small vessels. Deciphering an immunological blood test in children is exactly the same.
- Norm IgG is 7-17 g / l. The increased concentration of this type of antibody indicates infectious pathologies, autoimmune diseases, disorders of the hematopoietic system of cancer origin. A decrease in the concentration is most common in infants with chemical intoxication, radiation exposure and as a result of therapy with immunosuppressive drugs.
- The normal content of IgM in plasma is 0.5-3.5 g / l.The acute phase of an infectious disease, pathological abnormal liver functions and autoimmune pathologies significantly increase this indicator. A reduced IgM level is observed in patients with a removed spleen after surgery, as well as in infants after chemical poisoning.
- Circulating immune complexes in the blood are most often examined for suspected failure of the entire protective system. Up to 200 units / ml is a normal indicator of the CEC. Increased rates are observed in anaphylactic shock, autoimmune diseases, Crohn's disease and inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. All these pathologies are called immunopositive.
The doctor determines
The above indicators of blood tests for immunological research do not end there. The need is determined by the doctor depending on the presented symptoms and complaints of patients. If deviations from the norm were identified, then correct therapy should be prescribed. Self-treatment in this situation is unacceptable, as it can greatly aggravate the situation.
Analysis provides a very large amount of information.This modern method of blood testing helps to properly assess the properties of the body's defense system and the work of individual organs. Most often, the referral is given by a specialist with complaints of a deterioration in the patient’s general condition. However, you can test your immunity yourself by donating blood.
If the table with the results shows a deviation from the norm, then it is necessary to seek qualified help from a doctor. As a rule, therapy is aimed at eliminating the causes of reduced immunity and strengthening the latter.