Individual educational route: goal, development, sample with examples of design
Documents relating to the modernization of the Russian education system necessarily contain the idea of the need to change directions. The main purpose of the general education school team should be not so much the implementation of abstract educational tasks, as the development of unique personality abilities that are based on new social values and needs.
Achieving such a goal is impossible without individualization of the educational process, which is quite doable. To do this, you only need to educate children on an individual educational route. GEF indicate the value of this direction. It will allow each child, based on the operational-regulated self-assessment, as well as on the active striving for perfection, to form and develop the value orientations of their own convictions and attitudes.Providing work on the individual educational route (IOM) will make it possible to make a big step in solving issues of personal development and its readiness to determine the meaning and purpose of life through education. Teachers at the same time it will be possible to look at the educational process from the point of view of the student.
Individualization of learning
In recent decades, the school’s work has been marked by the emergence of a wide variety of pedagogical systems, concepts and theories that are focused on the self-development of the student’s and teacher’s personality, as well as on various ways to support this manifestation. In this regard, locally and universally used learning directions are adjusted in the direction of individualization and humanization. What does this mean? By humanism in education is meant ensuring the external and internal freedom of each person, as well as recognizing his intrinsic value.
Thanks to the development of this direction, the main task of education is becoming the student's knowledge of his own "I". The growing personality must assess its capabilities and aspirations. After all, they are necessary for it to realize their own forces, as well as for self-determination.
In its development, the young man faces many problems.As soon as a child who wants to join something, the first difficulties arise, the support of the teacher should immediately come into force.
The main idea of the renewal of education is its individualization. This will allow the learning process to be as efficient and functional as possible. One of the ways to achieve this goal is the development and subsequent implementation of the student’s individual educational route. For the same student, there may be several. Their implementation can be carried out both sequentially and parallel to each other.
What is a student’s individual educational route? This is a differentiated, educational, purposefully designed program. Its implementation is designed to provide the student with the position of the subject of choice. An adult, when following a child along an individual educational route, is called upon to provide pedagogical support for self-determination and self-realization of his pupil.
There is a wider understanding of this term. This is an individual educational trajectory.Such a definition implies the implementation of several areas of the curriculum and a set of plans at once. In this understanding, the individual educational route serves as a meaningful component. Also in the learning path includes a way to implement the developed program, that is, the technology for the organization of the pedagogical process.
The child’s individual educational route is necessary for constructing activities for learning. A similar training system is created for the implementation of a personality-oriented approach and is intended for the training of gifted individuals. This route takes into account the intellectual abilities of children, determines their personal paths of education and development.
What is the need to use individual educational route? The introduction of such a system allows you to create certain psychological and pedagogical conditions that provide active stimulation of self-worthy activities based on self-development, self-education, as well as self-expression during the process of mastering skills and knowledge.
Taking into account the idea of the universal genetic talent of each child, a teacher in a modern school should provide his pupils with a field of activity that will give the ground for the manifestation of all their abilities.
However, it is worth considering the fact that not all children can be called gifted. A large number of students is very difficult to cope with the proposed educational system program. For such students, an individual educational route from the elementary school class should continue to be a significant help in learning. This can be connected with the poor health of children, with a low degree of their motivation, and with a number of other reasons that the teacher should know and take into account in the learning process.
What individual educational route can be compiled by the teacher for a particular student? The choice of this or that IOM will depend on a number of factors. Among them:
- Features, interests and needs in achieving an educational outcome and the student, and his parents.
- The professionalism of the teacher.
- The possibilities of educational institutions.
The most effective means in developing skills for the child’s self-determination are pedagogical situations, as well as joint planning with the children and their parents of the child’s development program, which occurs in the process of reading, communicating, playing, etc. Such a situation is called an individual educational route.
Types of IOM
According to the new concept of learning, a child can repeat a topic, study a new one, or reinforce a material already studied. The individual educational route developed by the teacher for a specific student must necessarily take into account his psychological characteristics, as well as the level of knowledge.
IOM is designed for strong and weak students, as well as for those children who often get sick. However, among students there are always those to whom learning is easier than others.
The sample of an individual educational route for a child with outstanding abilities, presented below, makes it possible to understand what work should be done with gifted students.
Routes can be long and short. But, regardless of their type, such programs help to solve problemsassociated with the formation and development of the personality of the student, increasing his interest in the subject, the desire to self-knowledge and their application in practice. As a result, the student begins to work fruitfully and achieves success.
The GEF offers teachers to develop an individual educational route for a child with a disability. Such activity will be within the framework of improving correctional education. An individual educational route for a child with disabilities should determine the path of quality education and training for children with disabilities. In the future, this will contribute to their successful socialization.
Features of creating IOM
It is impossible for the teacher to “draw the trajectory” of teaching their pupils, since the process of acquiring knowledge is always in dynamics and in development. An individual educational route cannot be compiled using a single “recipe”. This justifies the need to adjust the elements of the IOM. The main task of the teacher at the same time is to offer the student a wide range of opportunities, as well as helping to make his final choice.
The development of IOM occurs with the participation of the teacher, student and his parents.However, the process of choosing a specific route should belong only to the child.
Stages of building IOM
Creating an individual educational route is possible with the following steps:
- The teacher is determined by the content of education.
- It reveals the level and mode of assimilation of educational material by the child.
- Planned teacher actions to achieve the goal.
- Criteria for evaluating performance are being developed.
What are the main elements of an individual educational route? These components are:
- Trust. It expresses the formulation of specific educational goals that should be formulated on the basis of the GEF, as well as the needs and motivations of the student.
- Informative. This element of IOM is a rationale for the structure, as well as the systematization and grouping of the content of school subjects with the establishment of inter-cycle, intra-subject, and also interdisciplinary connections.
- Technological. This component determines the methods to be used, methods and pedagogical technologies in the field of education and training systems.
- Diagnostic.This component indicates the system used to determine the level of knowledge.
- Organizational and pedagogical. These are the conditions and paths that should lead to the achievement of the goal.
- Productive. This element is intended to formulate the expected results.
Drafting an explanatory note
This is a document describing the individual educational route compiled by the teacher. It should include a description:
- Features of the development of the child.
- Potential opportunities and abilities of the student.
- Features characteristic of the educational process.
- Expected results.
- Performance criteria.
- Forms and methods of tracking the results of the educational process.
In the individual route the teacher must specify the following points:
- Offer a set of tasks of increased or simplified complexity.
- Provide topics of creative or research projects.
The necessary materials should be placed in the annex to the developed program.
Consider specific examples of the compilation of an explanatory note to the IOM
Education in preschool
An individual educational route for a preschooler under the Federal State Educational Standards is necessary to create conditions in kindergarten that contribute to the positive socialization of children. At the same time, children should receive social and personal development, which is inextricably linked with the physical, aesthetic, emotional and intellectual areas.
How should an individual educational route of a preschool child be prepared according to the Federal State Educational Standards?
The first section of the explanatory note concerns general information about the child. Here the teacher specifies the following data:
- Where did the pupil come from?
- There were or not he had long breaks in visiting DOW.
- Assessment on adaptation of the preschool child in the group (good or satisfactory, insufficient or bad).
The second section of the document explains the characteristics of the family. Here the tutor provides the following information:
- Information about parents.
- Information on family composition (incomplete or complete, having many children or not, as well as the presence of sisters and brothers).
- Type of family (prosperous, dysfunctional, morally dysfunctional or with the presence of family dictates, with excessive child custody, passive or willing to cooperate).
The third section is intended to indicate the features of the appearance of the child.Here the teacher should briefly note:
- Gait baby.
- Facial expressions.
- He has drooling, etc.
The fourth section is devoted to somatic health. Here the teacher should indicate:
- The characteristic of daytime sleep preschooler.
- The frequency of his diseases.
- The presence of enuresis or encopresis.
- Child health group.
The fifth section deals with the features of the motor sphere. In it, the teacher should describe the general and manual motor skills of the child. It also indicates which of his hands is leading.
In the sixth section indicates the need to describe the characteristics of the cognitive sphere of a preschooler. Here the following features of the pupil should be explained:
- Concentration (can he, during the lesson, concentrate on the proposed activity or is he constantly distracted).
- Accuracy in the performance of tasks.
- Characteristics of the pupil's memory (he quickly or slowly remembers the material proposed, does it hard to memorize poetry, is it able to catch the main idea of what was said).
- Characteristic thinking of the child (whether he is able to navigate in space,does the simplest classification according to the model, selects the counting operations, and also can or does not form temporary representations when studying the program material).
The seventh paragraph provides a description of the level of knowledge of the preschooler by program sections. Here you need to specify the following information:
- Child skills in drawing and math.
- His ideas about the world around him.
- What difficulties a preschooler is experiencing in the learning process.
- When describing the general knowledge of the world around us, the educator explains if the child names his or her name and age, knows the names of the parents, the seasons, the home address, the signs of the times, is able to describe the plant and animal world.
- Formation of pupils drawing skills. That is, whether he can depict a person, a tree, a house, etc., as well as make a bar or a ball of plasticine.
- His elementary mathematical representations concerning numbers and counts.
The preschooler’s individual educational route in the eighth section explains his attitude to the classes:
- Can a child control his activities, bringing it to the end.
- Does the kid accept help (training, organizing, directing, practical or verbal)?
- How he overcomes the difficulties (crying, quitting work, looking for a way out on his own).
In the ninth section, the preschooler’s individual educational route includes a description of the child’s speech. At the same time its features are considered:
- Sound side (phonetic, correct pronunciation of sounds, etc.).
- Child vocabulary. Enough or not, it is developed, whether the age norm.
- The grammatical structure of the child's speech. Is it sufficiently formed and does it correspond to the age of the pupil?
- Use (or not) of verbs and nouns in diminutive form.
- The ability of a preschooler to co-ordinate adjectives and numerals with nouns.
- Speech connectivity. Does it meet the age norm or does it require further development.
The tenth section concerns the characteristics of a preschooler's activity, that is, whether he has self-service skills, how much he is interested in games, constructive and graphic work (collecting matryoshka and pyramids, simple figures, etc.).
In the eleventh section, the teacher indicates difficulties in communicating with the child. Can he support the game or seeks to be alone, conflicted or not, etc.
The twelfth section indicates the personality characteristics of the child. Here the teacher must provide the following data:
- How adequate are his emotional reactions.
- He is passive or active.
- Capricious or shy in dealing with adults and children.
The thirteenth section should tell about the features of the emotional-volitional sphere of a preschooler. Here, the teacher describes the prevailing mood of the child, whether he feels fear of possible failure, whether he switches to another activity at the request of an adult, etc.
The last section points to additional features that a preschooler has. Does his propensity for any particular type of activity, what are the reasons for his developmental lag (if any)?
We considered the peculiarities of drawing up an individual educational route for a child. The samples presented in the article will help in its writing.