Main types and types of professional activity
The world of professions is very diverse, and besides, it is dynamic. According to domestic and foreign reference books, there are up to thirty five thousand types of professional activity and their names. In the field of psychology, in order to solve scientific and practical tasks, such as, for example, vocational guidance, systematization of human activity, its distribution, as well as comparison by any signs are required: complexity, danger, magnitude of load, tension, and so on.
Lack of uniform classification
It is believed that the theory of labor requires psychological classification. It is also necessary for practical research. Many analyzes and studies could be carried out much faster if a specific typology of professions already existed. But today there is no single approach to the classification of human activity.
The main drawback of many of them was that they proceeded from the predominance of a certain mental process in a particular type of activity. In addition, classifications were proposed according to criteria such as attention and intellectual activity, but this is just a one-sided approach.
Attempts were made to create a classification of areas and types of professional activity by types of engineering, industry, metallurgy and agriculture. But such a unit cannot be psychological, since in each industry there is a fairly large variety of types of work that are radically different from each other.
Types of professional activity in Tatishchev and Strumilina
In the eighteenth century, the famous historian and statesman Tatishchev was engaged in the study of this issue. They were offered their own classification of the main types of professional activity:
- Necessary science in the form of education, health, economics and law.
- Useful sciences such as physics, agriculture, mathematics and biology.
- Dandy, or, in another way, amusing science, such as art and literature.
- Vain sciences in the form of alchemy and astrology.
- Pest science, to which Tatishchev equated witchcraft.
A very interesting approach was proposed in the twenties of the last century by a prominent Soviet economist Strumilin, who based his classification on the basis of the level of human independence in labor. At one time, the approach was considered quite progressive, but today much has become outdated.So, Strumilin divided all professions into the following list of types of professional activity, consisting of five types of work:
- The first type is an automatic strictly regulated labor. The conveyor works characterized by the execution of similar operations during the whole working day were referred to it.
- The second type is semiautomatic work. Telephonists and machinists were assigned to workers of this type, within the framework of whose labor actions are not always strictly regulated.
- The third type is a template-executive work. This category is perhaps the most vulnerable in Strumilin’s entire classification, in which he included almost all types of machine-manual labor. Thus, it included machine builders, seamstresses, and so on.
The following two types do not apply to working professions.One of them is called “independent work”. This category includes the work of designers and engineers. The latter type of professions is a category of free creative labor, in which workers in various types of art are meant.
In general, it is considered that there is a rational link in this classification, especially if we consider the first two sections. But, of course, for the modern stage of history, this classification is very outdated.
Modern classification of occupations
Currently, the classification of occupations according to Klimov is actively used, which is of great importance in addressing issues related to vocational guidance for young people. This method is based on a multifactorial principle. According to this classification, the following types of professional activity are distinguished:
- "Man - Nature".
- "Man - Man".
- "Man - Technique".
- "Man - Sign Systems".
- "Man - Artistic image."
Let us consider in more detail each of these categories.
The professions of the category "Man - Nature" include seed farming, animal husbandry, as well as such specialists as livestock technicians, agronomists, dog specialists, laboratory technicians of chemical and bacteriological analysis and other types.The objectives of the professional activities of this category are associated with plant and animal organisms.
These include professions that are related to agriculture, and in addition to the food industry, research and medicine. Some interest in nature, but not the main one, should be pursued by psychologists and tourism managers, as well as employees from the hospitality industry.
The presented division does not mean at all that the work of a person is directed exclusively to the professions mentioned above. Plant growers, for example, working in a team, use a variety of equipment and among other things deal with issues of economic analysis of labor. But at the same time the main subject of attention and care of plant growers are cultures and their environment.
As part of the choice of this type of activity, it is important to understand how a person relates to nature: either as a recreation area or he perceives it as a workshop, in which he intends to give all his energy to production.
The peculiarity of biological objects of labor activity is that they are difficult and changeable, and besides, they are non-standard by their own laws. Plants, animals, and also microorganisms live and grow, get sick and die.Anyone who belongs to this type of professional activity needs not just to know a lot about organisms, but to be able to foresee the likely changes in them, which can sometimes be irreversible. An individual is also required to take initiative, along with independence in solving certain labor tasks, he must show care and foresight.
In the category of "Man - Technology" technical objects in the form of machines, mechanisms, materials and types of energy are the main and leading subject of labor. The specialties that are equated to this group are the following: sinkers, carpenters, metallurgical technicians, mechanical engineers and other types. The sphere of professional activity in the category “Man-Technique” includes electricians, radio mechanics, builders, computer builders, telecommunications specialists, and so on. Among the professions in question there is the following division:
- Specialties in the extraction and processing of soils, as well as rocks.
- Professions in the processing and use of non-metallic industrial materials along with products and semi-finished products.
- Specialties in the production and processing of metals, installation of machines and devices, as well as mechanical assembly.
- Professions associated with the repair and adjustment of technological machines, as well as installations and vehicles.
- Specialties for the repair and installation of buildings, structures and various structures.
- Professions associated with the assembly and installation of electrical equipment, devices and apparatus.
- Specialties in adjustment, repair and maintenance of electrical equipment, apparatus and devices.
- Professions associated with the use of lifting and vehicles, as well as their management.
- Specialties related to the processing of agricultural products.
As part of the processing, transformation, movement or analysis of technical objects from the employee requires precision actions. Considering that technical objects are almost always created directly by man, in this industry there are especially ample opportunities for various inventions, innovations and creativity. In addition to the creative approach to business in the field of technology from someone who considers himself to this type of professional activity, a high level of performance discipline is required.
In the case of the category "Man - Man", people are the main and leading subject of labor.This includes types of professional pedagogical activity, as well as doctors, psychologists, hairdressers, guides, managers, heads of artistic groups, and so on. Among this group are the following professions:
- Specialties that are associated with human learning, as well as the organization of children's groups.
- Professions aimed at production management and management of people, as well as all kinds of teams.
- Specialties that are associated with commercial and consumer services.
- Professions aimed at information service.
- Specialties that involve the information and artistic service of people and the management of groups.
- Professions that are related to medical services.
For successful work in the professions of the presented category, it is necessary to learn not only to establish, but also to keep in touch with people, understanding them and understanding the characteristics of each individual, and also master the knowledge in the sphere of production, art or science. Here is a small list of qualities possessed by people related to the classification of "Man - Man":
- Stable positive mood in working with people.
- Great need for communication.
- The ability to understand the intentions, as well as the thoughts and moods of other people.
- The ability to instantly understand someone's relationship.
- The ability to understand and find a common language with a variety of individuals.
The leading subject of labor in the classification of Man-Sign Systems is conventional signs along with numbers, codes, natural or artificial languages. The professions in this case are as follows: translators, draftsmen, engineers, topographers, secretaries-typists, programmers, and others.
Among the professions of this type of professional informational activity of a person are the following groups:
- Specialties that are associated with the design of documents, office work, as well as text analysis, or their partial or complete conversion and transcoding.
- Specialties, the subject of labor are the numbers, as well as quantitative ratios.
- Specialties that are associated with the processing of information in the form of a system of conventional signs, along with schematic representations of objects.
This type of professional informational activity of a person using dry symbols is typical for people who, distracting from the properties of the surrounding world, can focus on the information carried by various signs.When processing information in the form of conventional symbols, control tasks are formed along with verification, accounting, data processing, and the creation of new systems.
The leading subject of work relating themselves to the type of professional activity "Man - Artistic Image" is the artistic image, as well as the ways of its construction. The employees of this classification are artists, artists, musicians, designers, stone carvers, literary workers. The professions of the “Man - Artistic Image” group are as follows:
- Specialties that are associated with visual activities.
- Professions aimed at musical activities.
- Specialists working in the field of literary and artistic activities.
- Profession actor-stage orientation.
One of the peculiarities of the activity “Man - Artistic Image” is a large share of labor costs, which remains hidden from outside observers. In addition, it is often necessary to make special efforts to achieve the effect of lightness, as well as the ease of the final result.
Classification based on employment goals and tools
Within each type of profession, three groups are distinguished from the above-mentioned modern classification based on the purpose of work:
- Gnostic types of professional information activities, ie, professions, which include tasters, controllers, sociologists, proofreaders, art historians, and so on.
- Transforming professions in the face of master livestock breeders, turners, teachers, accountants, florists, decorators and the like.
- Survey professions, which include pilots, observers, design engineers, educators, programmers, and also those who prefer types of professional human activity using technical means.
Each of the previous classes of professional activity is divided into four types according to the type of professional information activity of a person using the basic tools of labor:
- The specialties of manual labor, which include the supervisors of plumbing, laboratory assistants of chemical analysis, veterinarians, fitters and so on.
- Professions related to machine-manual labor, such as turners, car drivers, excavator drivers, and the like.
- Professions that are associated with the use of automated systems.These include machine tool operators with program control, air traffic controllers, and so on.
- Specialties that are associated with the predominance of functional means of activity, such as actors, acrobats and the like.
Classification by Activity
In each of the four above-mentioned groups of occupations, the following categories of activity are distinguished on the basis of working conditions:
- Activities in a normal microclimate, for example, those who belong to the types of economic professional activities.
- Work in the open air. In this case we are talking about agronomists, installers, police inspectors and so on.
- Work in non-standard conditions, such as divers, spiers, miners, firefighters and the like.
- Work in conditions of excessive responsibility: kindergarten teachers, teachers, investigators, and so on.
Types of cognitive activity
Teaching along with the cognitive activity belongs to the spiritual spheres of society. There are four types of professional activities using information resources drawn from the spiritual life:
- Everyday activity.This category involves the exchange of experiences and images that people carry and share with others.
- Scientific activity. This group involves the study and use of various laws, as well as patterns. The main goal of scientific activity is the creation of an ideal system of the material world.
- The artistic activity is based on the attempts of creators and artists to analyze the surrounding reality and to find in it both the shades of the beautiful and something absolutely ugly.
- Religious activities. The subject of the type of professional activity of a person in this category is the person himself. This also includes the norms of morality, as well as the moral aspects of the actions of which the whole life of a person consists, therefore spiritual activity plays a big role in their formation.
Classification of spiritual activity
Religious, scientific, and also creative activity belongs to the spiritual life of a person. Having an idea of scientific and religious activities, it is necessary to consider in more detail the creative direction of human life. These include artistic or musical directions, as well as literature and architecture, directing and acting.Creative development is inherent in every person, although, in order to uncover them, it takes a long and hard work.
Types of economic activity of the company
Economic activity has recently been challenged by environmentalists, since it is based on natural reserves, which in the near future may exhaust themselves. The types of professional activity with the use of technical means of human activities include the extraction of minerals in the form of oil, metals, stones and everything that can be beneficial, but, unfortunately, causes damage not only to nature, but also to the planet.
Classification of information activities
An important part of human interaction with the world is information. The types of this activity include the receipt, use and storage of information, as well as its distribution. Informational activity often becomes a threat to life, as there are always people who do not want third parties to know and disclose any information. In addition, this type of activity is capable of provocative in nature and serves as a means of manipulating public consciousness.
Types of mental activity
Mental activity affects the state of the individual, as well as the productivity of her life. The simplest type of mental activity is an ordinary reflex. These are the habits and skills that have been established through constant repetition. They are almost invisible in comparison with such a complex type of mental activity as creativity. This category is distinguished by its diversity, as well as originality, it bears in itself originality and uniqueness.
Thus, the above categories of attributes partially coincide with a large-scale list of occupations. The proposed classification of the main types of professional activity makes it possible to designate an overview diagram of a general map of the world of professional activity and to make an approximate formula for a certain type of work. This classification is not suitable in order to decompose all professions on the shelves, it is impossible and unnecessary. It is necessary to realize that most professions are determined by a large number of different types of attributes. But within any complex set it is useful to find some at least approximate differences.