Manor Sviblovo in Moscow: description, history and interesting facts
In the XVIII century in the Russian capital there were many estates, but, unfortunately, most of them have not survived to this day. In today's article will be told about one of these architectural monuments. Namely, about the estate Sviblovo. Time did not spare, some of the buildings did not survive.
Yet, being an architectural complex typical of19 centuriesIt is of considerable interest. And above all, the Trinity Church, located on the territory and built in 1708. Where is the estate Sviblovo? What famous personalities owned this architectural complex?
The first historical information
Sviblovo manor lost most of its buildings at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, this natural and architectural monument is being revived. The estate was owned, of course, not by ordinary people, but by those whose names are often found in historical documents. This manor is not just a building.This, as already mentioned, a whole complex of buildings.
In the XVIII century, under Sviblovo meant both the estate and the village. The first mention of the estate dates back to the beginning of the 15th century. In the spiritual certificate of Basil I, the territory on which the estate was later built was called the village of Fedorovsky. It was located on the picturesque river Yauza, it adjoined a small mill.
origin of name
The last wife of Ivan IV was Maria Nagaya. We remembered this queen, because one of her direct descendants isFedorSviblo -Voivod Dmitry Donskoy. Such a nickname probably appeared by chance.Sviblain Russian vernacular17th centurymeant a lisping, tongue-tied.
It is worth saying that the Sviblovo estate is mentioned in the works of Karamzin and in the works of Pushkin. In these historical and artistic works, it is already found under a slightly different name -Svirlovo. The first destruction in the estate occurred in the Time of Troubles. There was a long wooden church, which was either demolished or burned.
Manor Sviblovo - a monument of architecture, which has an interesting history.Unlike other old Moscow buildings, she quite often changed owners. Russian estates usually belonged to one or another noble family for several centuries. With Sviblovo things were different.
About the first years of the estate is not known. But according to historical data, in 1620 it was granted to Lev Plescheev. And three years later, where a wooden church stood not so long ago, they built a new temple. For several decades, the estate belonged to representatives of the Plescheev family. The first owner had five sons. In 1624, the estate passed to Andrei Plescheev. From him - to Michael. This representative of a fairly well-known family in Petrovsky times made a good career. Mikhail Plescheev enjoyed the location of Peter, this confirms the fact that at the end of the XVII century, the emperor entrusted him with the management of the treasury.
At the beginning of the XVIII century Sviblovo already represented a rather typical manor for that time. There was a manor house, a bathhouse, a barnyard, and bread barns. At that time, huge orchards became fashionable. Following this trend, the then owner broke a huge garden, which grew pears, apples, cherries.
Some statesmen in tsarist times managed to make an amazing career. So, CyrilNaryshkinHe began his career as a kravchego - a person who controls the process of serving drinks and food to the emperor. Then he rose to the commandant of St. Petersburg, and later became the governor of Moscow. Manor Sviblovo he took possession, one might say, by chance. Being the guardian of Maria (granddaughter of Pleshcheeva), who passed away quite early, became the owner of the estate that passed to herby inheritance, by oraltestament.
Naryshkinsubstantially rebuilt Sviblovo. Changed the manor house, for which he attracted prisoners of the Swedes,erectedHoly Trinity Church. The temple was built of brick and white stone and fully corresponds in architectural terms to the so-called Naryshkin baroque. This styleis closeto Western Europe, is a kind of connection between the architecture of old Moscow and Peter's baroque. A little later near the churchNaryshkinHe built a bell tower, then a malt plant. A greenhouse was also broken up here and a house for peasants was built.
Naryshkinwho spent most of his time in the new capital, made a country residence from the estate.There was created a good serf theater, whose actors perfectly played the wind instruments. The theater existed for quite a long time. The estate, which after the loud land process no longer belonged to the genusNaryshkin, Catherine II often visited him. It is known that Anna Ivanovna is amongpeasant actorsSviblovo picked up musicians for her court orchestra. In the 20s, Plescheev returned the estate.
In the 20s, the manor was rented by the Duke of Golstein, the future husband of the daughter of Peter the Great. After 20 years, the village was transferred into the possession of Golitsyn. The fact is that the granddaughter of Maria Plescheeva married one of the representatives of this glorious family. But the Golitsyns owned the estate not for long. They had no sons, and according to the laws of the time, the daughters could not get the estate. In 1782, Grigory Potemkin’s nephew, Major General Vysotsky, bought the estate. With him, the estate again underwent changes: a mezzanine was added on, and Empire style elements appeared in the architectural decor.
In the second halfXIX centurythe estate was owned by a merchant Kozhevnikov. This person was more interested in the benefits that can be derived from the estate.On the territory he built a cloth factory, hired experienced professionals,erectedmore than ten buildings. Thanks to his amazing business qualities, he soon turned from a merchant into a major industrialist. About a thousand people worked at the Kozhevnikov factory. The entrepreneur brought here the newest machines and machines, soon a worker appeared around the enterprisevillage.
Increasingly, Kozhevnikov arranged holidays with fireworks, theatrical performances, sophisticated entertainment. Finally, the estate Sviblovo suffered the fate of Chekhov's cherry orchard. Kozhevnikov had debts that could be covered only by selling the estate. Obviously, then orchards were cut down.
Manor Sviblovo: reviews
Address of the former noble estate:Lazarevtravel, house 19. This is not the most popular tourist attraction. According to reviews, a visit to the estate is unlikely to be interesting for those who are not familiar with a rich history. How to get to the estate Sviblovo? Distance fromof the same nameThe metro station is just over a kilometer away. From here there is bus number 628. From the metro Otradnoe can be reached by taxi.
Manor Sviblovo - a quiet, peaceful place, suitable for unhurried walks.