Republic of Nauru: area, population, president, state symbols
The Republic of Nauru is best known for its small size. In this regard, it has no equal among island states, independent republics and countries located outside Europe.
In addition, the state has no official table
tsy. Some sources call the capital of Nauru the Yaren district, but this is not true. There are no cities in the country either, but there are 14 districts. From this article you will learn where the Republic of Nauru is and what it represents from a geographical, political, economic and tourist point of view.
To see Nauru on the map, it will have to be pretty close. The country is located on the same island, not far from Australia. Nauru Square is only 21.3 km2. About 13 thousand people live on this territory. In 1968, the state proclaimed its independence.In the same year, a republican model of government was established with Westminster parliamentarism and individual echoes of the presidential form of government.
58% of the island’s population is indigenous. Europeans are in second place in numbers - 8%. The state languages here are English and Nauru. Local writing is based on the Latin alphabet and has existed for about 100 years. From the point of view of religious bias, the population of Nauru was divided as follows: Protestants - 57%, Catholics - 33%, Buddhists and Taoists - 5%. The remaining 5% of the population adhere to the ancient tradition, worshiping the island spirit of Buitani and the goddess Eidjebong.
Tourism in Nauru is very poorly developed due to environmental issues.
History of the country
It is assumed that about three thousand years ago the island was inhabited by Micronesians and Polynesians. The origin was transmitted through the maternal line. Until the moment when the Europeans came to the island, its population consisted of 12 tribes. That is why the modern symbolism of the state has a 12-pointed star.
Nauru appeared on the map on November 8, 1798, when English navigator John Fearn discovered the island on the way from New Zealand to China.In the 19th century, the first Europeans began to settle in Nauru. Among them were mostly escaped convicts, traders and deserters from whaling ships. The presence of such a contingent is not the best way reflected in the atmosphere of the island: previously unknown diseases have appeared, drunken robbery and internecine wars have become frequent. In 1888, Nauru was annexed by Germany and incorporated into the Marshall Islands protectorate, which was ruled by the Jaluit company. At first, Nauru lived his life and practically did not feel the difference between the previous and the previous government. However, with the discovery of large deposits of phosphate rock, the situation has changed dramatically. In 1906, a company from Austria began to develop these deposits, which affected the entire subsequent history of the island. During the First World War, the island was captured by the Austrian army. In parallel with this, the Japanese tried to take possession of it.
After the war, the island received the status of the mandated territory of the League of Nations. Management was divided between the UK, Austria and New Zealand. In this case, the administrative management received Austria. The listed countries have created the British Phosphate Commerce company, which is engaged in the extraction of phosphorites and their sale.The company's activity was carried out until the Second World War, but the indigenous people had nothing from it, except perhaps insignificant compensation.
At the end of 1940, disagreements began between the countries owning the company. As a result, the German ships sank several British and one Norwegian ships, the phosphorite caught fire, and the port facilities were bombarded. From the port remained ruins. Phosphorite, for which Japan had already paid, was completely destroyed because of the fire.
From 1942 to 1945, the island was invaded by Japan. Over the years, more than a thousand Nauruans were deported. Later, only half of them returned to their homeland.
In 1947, the island came under the care of the UN, but still remained under the joint control of Great Britain, New Zealand and Australia. Independence movements soon began in Nauru. By 1966, the Legislative and Executive Councils were formed. They ensured internal self-government. January 31, 1968 Nauru declared independence.
The state and its government are headed by a president who is elected every three years.Today the country is headed by Baron Divavesi Vaca. The President of the Republic of Nauru was elected in 2013 and re-elected in 2016. The unicameral parliament consists of only 18 deputies.
The judiciary in Nauru is completely independent. The country has a common law - a system whose source of law is judicial precedent. The Common Law and the Act on Enacted Laws of 1971 suggest that the country's legal system consists of parts of Nauruan traditions, practices and institutions. The system of judicial bodies of the republic consists of the Supreme, Appeal, Circuit Courts, as well as family courts. The state has a land committee that deals with the resolution of land disputes and is entitled to appeal to the Supreme Court.
The state symbols of the Republic of Nauru are represented by a flag and a coat of arms.
FlagIt is a blue cloth, the length of which is exactly twice the width. It symbolizes the ocean. In the middle of the canvas is a yellow line (equator). Under it, in the left corner, there is a 12-pointed white star. The interposition of the line and the star was not chosen in vain - it symbolizes the location of the country in relation to the equator. Well, the 12 ends of the stars are reminiscent of 12 tribes inhabiting the island in antiquity.The flag was adopted on January 31, 1968, on the day of the independence of the country.
The coat of arms of the dwarf country of Nauru is a three-part shield, in the upper part of which is a symbol on the golden wicker field, which is considered to be the alchemical designation of phosphorus. This decision is due to the fact that phosphorites, until recently, formed the basis of the economy of the state. Wicker background identifies the local people. In the lower left light field of the shield is a frigate bird that sits on a pole above the blue waves. A calophyllum branch is depicted in the lower right field against a blue background. The shield is surrounded by palm ropes and feathers of the frigate. Above the shield is a 12-pointed star, the origin of which we already know. On the white ribbon, located below the emblem, written the national motto of Nauru. In translation, it means: "First of all, the will of God." The emblem was also invented in 1968.
There are no national armed forces in a dwarf state. Australia is responsible for providing security in Nauru, by informal agreement. Nevertheless, the republic has at least three thousand men of military age. Approximately 70% of them are suitable for military service for health reasons.A few national police units are responsible for internal security. The most common offenses in Nauru are: speeding, violation of the inviolability of private property, theft of a bicycle and violation of public order.
Geography and geology
Nauru Island is a raised coral atoll. A coastal plain with a width of 100 to 300 m surrounds a limestone plateau up to 30 m high. Previously, the plateau was covered with a dense layer of phosphate rock. Presumably, they formed from seabird excrement. Around the island there is a reef dotted with peaks, 120-300 meters wide, which is exposed during low tide. In order for ships to approach the island, 16 canals were made in the reef. For the delivery of phosphate rock to the port, a narrow-gauge railway was built across the territory of Nauru. Places of past development can be found on the huge pyramids and limestone battlements.
Due to the lack of rivers, Nauru lacks fresh water. In its southwestern part is the lake Buada, which is fed by rainwater. The water level in the lake is 5 meters higher than in the ocean surrounding the island.The fertile soil around Bouad promotes agricultural activity in the area.
Since the amount of water from this lake does not meet the needs of the local population, during the drought period fresh water is brought from Australia. Also on the island is one desalination plant, which is powered by electricity generated by a single power plant. Due to the high cost of electricity, the installation works irregularly. For irrigation and technical needs, the islanders collect rainwater.
Flora and fauna
During the Second World War, the island suffered greatly. The state of things was aggravated by the active development of phosphate rock. As a result, most of the territory of the Republic of Nauru was left without vegetation. Currently, they are actively working on this problem: vegetation cover has been restored on 63% of the territory. In 1989, the Republic filed a lawsuit in international court regarding the actions of Australia during its administration of the island, in particular regarding the environmental consequences of the development of phosphorites. Since then, Australia has been paying compensation to Nauru.
Coconut palms, laurels, rubber plants, pandanuses and other deciduous trees grow on the island. Here you can also find a large number of different shrubs. In the inner part of Nauru planted: cherry, almond tree, mango and hibiscus.
The fauna of the island is not rich. Of reptiles, only lizards are found here. Birds: sandpipers, pigeons, terns, frigates, petrels and warblers. Cats, dogs, pigs and chickens were specially brought to the island from neighboring states. As for marine life, in the coastal waters there are: sharks, mollusks, crabs and sea urchins.
Administrative division of Nauru
Despite the small size of the state, it is divided into 14 administrative districts. The bulk of the population lives around Lake Buada and along the coast. There are no cities in Nauru, as well as the capital. The presidential residence is located in the district of Meneng, and the parliament and the main government institutions are in the district of Yaren.
During the period of active extraction of phosphate rock (1970-1980), the Republic of Nauru was very rich. For the wealth of the locals had to pay with vegetation.By the end of the 20th century, 80% of the land of an already small island turned into a desert. In the 2000s, there was an offshore zone, and by 2003 a serious economic crisis broke out, which led to political clashes: the presidential residence was burned and the telephone connection was turned off.
In recent years, Australia has provided considerable assistance to the country. In the coastal zone grow fruit and breadfruit. Fishing is focused on the domestic market. The exception is tuna, which is actively supplied to Japan and Australia. For domestic use, the locals are also engaged in breeding Khanos fish in small artificial ponds. As for fuel, automotive equipment, equipment, building materials and consumer goods, they are imported in the country. The main currency of the island is the Australian dollar.
The national sport game in the Republic of Nauru is Australian football. In addition, weightlifting, basketball, tennis and softball are common here. In 1996, Nauru was officially accepted into the Olympic movement.
Education in a dwarf state is compulsory for children from 6 to 15 years old (10 classes) and free. Young children also have pre-school education.To get a higher education, local teens go abroad, mainly to Australia. In addition, there is a department of the South Pacific University in Nauru, where you can study in absentia.
In the area of Yaren, which is often mistakenly called the capital of Nauru, there are two museums of Japanese weapons. A large number of bunkers and caponiers from the Second World War have also been preserved here. And in Yaren there is an underground lake Mokua-Vel.
In the district of Anibere is the most famous beach of Nauru with all the conditions for a comfortable stay. Despite the fairly strong ocean currents near the shores of the bay, this area is considered the most attractive on the island. Nearby reefs and wrecks create excellent conditions for diving and snorkeling. In general, the sunken ships and aircraft of the Second World War are found all over the island.
The total length of roads in Nauru is about 40 km. Hard surfaced roads are just under 30 km away, 17 of which stretch along the coast.The area of former phosphate development with the coast connects the 12-kilometer road, which has no hard surface. In the south of the island state, in the area Yaren, is an international airport. The local aviation company has two Boeing-737 aircraft at its disposal.
The Nauru railway has a length of only 3.9 km and serves for the communication of the phosphate rock production areas with the port. There is no public transport on the island, so most families have personal means of transportation. But the sea traffic is well developed here, which the republic is obliged to, again, to the phosphate industry.
Thanks to an effective state program to tackle public health problems, which primarily concerns the improvement of water supply to the population and the conduct of periodic sanitary measures, in recent years it has been possible to avoid outbreaks of infectious diseases on the island. Nevertheless, diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, as well as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, remain a major problem for the country's health care.In addition, the people of Nauru are suffering from obesity. And in 2003, the country also led in the number of people with diabetes. As in other regions with an industrial past, the reason for the massive obesity in Nauru is the distribution of cheap high-calorie foods, mainly canned meat.
The main problem of Nauruan health care was and remains an acute shortage of personnel. Therefore, the government is trying to attract as many specialists as possible to the country's only hospital. People with serious illnesses are still being sent to Australia for treatment.