Short biography of Stepan Razin
Who is Stepan Razin? A brief biography of this historical figure is considered in the school curriculum. Let us analyze some interesting facts from his life.
What is interesting biography of Stepan Razin? A summary of the main stages in the life of this person testifies to the connection with the life of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
At that time there was an increase in feudal oppression. Despite the king’s quiet temper and his ability to listen to his subordinates, uprisings and riots arose in the country from time to time.
After its approval, serfdom became the basis of the Russian economy, any revolts were brutally suppressed by the authorities. The term of the search for fugitive peasants increased from 5 to 15 years, serfdom turned into a hereditary state.
Stepan Razin, whose biography will be discussed below, led a rebellion that was called a peasant war.
Portrait of Stepan Razin
The Russian historian V.I. Buganov, who has long been engaged in collecting information about Stepan Razin,based on some of the surviving documents that were published by the Romanovs, as well as on information preserved far from the Volga. Who is he - Stepan Razin? A brief biography for schoolchildren, proposed in the history textbook, is limited only by the minimum amount of information. It is difficult for children to draw a true portrait of the leader of the rebellious movement on these facts.
In 1630 Stepan Timofeevich Razin was born. A brief biography of his contains information that his father was a noble and wealthy Cossack Timothy Razin. On the village of Zimoveyskaya, a possible place for the birth of Stepan, for the first time at the endXVIIIcentury mentioned historian A.I. Rigelman. Domestic historian Popov suggested that Cherkassk is the birthplace of Stepan Razin, because it was this city that was repeatedly mentioned in the folk tales of the seventeenth century.
Biography of Stepan Razin contains information that Ataman of the Cossack troops Kornil Yakovlev became his godfather. Thanks to Cossack origin, Stepan from childhood held a special place among Don elders, and had certain privileges.
In 1661 he took an active part in negotiations with Kalmyks as a translator, fluent in Tatar and Kalmyk languages.
The biography of Stepan Razin contains the fact that by 1662 he became the commander of a Cossack army, which set out on a campaign against the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate. At that time, Stepan Razin had already managed to make two pilgrims to the Solovetsky Monastery, and also three times to become a Don Ambassador in Moscow. In 1663, he took part in a military campaign against the Crimean Tatars near Perekop.
Interesting moments of life
Biography of Stepan Razin contains many interesting points. For example, historians mark his genuine authority among the Don Cossacks, emit tremendous energy, unruly temper. Many historical descriptions speak of the arrogant facial expression of Razin, his degree and stature. The Cossacks called him “father,” were ready to kneel before him during a conversation, demonstrating in this way respect and honor.
There is no reliable information about whether he had a family, the biography of Stepan Razin. There is information that the children of the chieftain lived in the Kagalnitsky town.
The younger brother Frol and the older brother Ivan also became Cossack leaders. It was after the execution of the elder Ivan, carried out on the orders of the governor Yury Dolgorukov, that Stepan began to carry out a plan for the cruel revenge of the tsar's administration. Razin decides on a free and prosperous life for his Cossacks, building a military-democratic system.
As a manifestation of disobedience to the tsarist government, Razin, together with the Cossack army, went to a predatory campaign against Persia and the Lower Volga (1667-1669). His team robbed a trade caravan, blocked the movement of merchants in the direction of the Volga. As a result, the Cossack tylyb managed to free some of the exiles, avoiding a collision with a military unit.
Razin at that time settled near the Don, in the town of Kagalnitsky. Whites and Cossacks began to come up to him from all edges, forming a powerful rebel army. Attempts by the tsarist government to disperse the dispersed Cossacks who were walking about were unsuccessful, and the personality of Stepan Razin himself was overgrown with real legends.
Razintsy, who spoke under the banner of war, naively thought about how to protect Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich from the Moscow boyars.For example, in one of the letters, the chieftain wrote that his army was coming from the Don to help the sovereign in order to protect him from the traitors.
Expressing hatred for the authorities, the razintsy were ready to give their lives for the Russian Tsar.
In 1670, the open uprising of the Cossack army began. Together with his associates, Razin sent "lovely" letters, calling for him to join the ranks of his freedom-loving army.
The ataman never spoke about the overthrow of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, but he declared a real war to clerks, governors, representatives of the Russian church. Razintsy gradually introduced the Cossack army into the cities, destroyed the authorities, established their own rules there. The merchants who were trying to cross the Volga were detained and robbed.
Volga embraced mass uprisings. As leaders, not only the Cossacks of Razin, but also runaway peasants, Chuvash, Mari, Mordva. Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan were among the cities captured by the rebels.
In the fall of 1670, Razin met with serious resistance during his campaign against Simbirsk. Ataman was wounded, was forced along with his army to withdraw to the Don.
At the beginning of 1671 serious contradictions began to arise within the army. As a result, the authority of the ataman decreased, a new leader appeared instead - Yakovlev.
In the spring of the same year, together with his brother Frol, Stepan was captured and extradited to the government authorities. Despite his hopeless situation, Razin maintained his dignity. His execution was scheduled for June 2.
Since the king was afraid of serious unrest by the Cossack troops, the entire Bolotnaya Square, where the public execution took place, was cordoned off by several rows of people who were infinitely loyal to the king.
At all intersections, there were also detachments of government troops. Razin calmly listened to the entire sentence, then turned toward the church, bowed, and asked for forgiveness from the people who had gathered in the square.
The executioner first cut off his arm to his elbow, and then to the knee of the leg, then Razin lost his head. The execution of Frol, scheduled for the same time as Stepan, was delayed. He received his life in exchange for telling the authorities about the places where Stepan Razin hid his treasures.
The authorities did not succeed in finding the treasure, therefore in 1676, Flor was executed.In many Russian songs Razin is the ideal Cossack leader. Legends about the treasures of Razin are passed down from generation to generation. For example, there is information that the chieftain hid his treasures in a cave near the village Dobrinka.
She did not bring the execution of the Cossack chieftain peace and tranquility in the royal family. After the death of Razin, the peasant and Cossack wars continued in the Volga region and on the Volga. Astrakhan rebels managed to hold until the autumn of 1671. The Romanovs made great efforts to find and destroy the rebels' documents.