The goddess Venus in mythology and real life
In Roman mythology, Venus is the goddess of love, fertility and beauty. It was believed that if a person is handsome and graceful, it means that she turned her eyes on him.
Initially, the goddess Venus was the patroness of flowering gardens, spring. But later she began to attribute the role of the keeper of female beauty, marriage bonds and love.
There are two legends about the birth of Venus. According to one, she was the daughter of the supreme god Jupiter and his wife Dione. According to another version, she was born from sea foam and was brought up by oceanid nymphs who taught her everything that a woman should know.
On the bridegrooms that Jupiter made, Venus rejected all suitors. The supreme god became angry and married her to the ugliest of gods - Vulkan, the patron of blacksmiths.
Also, the goddess Venus was the mother of Aeneas, who escaped from Troy and became the ancestor of all people in Rome, which is why she was considered the ancestor of the Roman people. Caesar himself loved to boast that his kind originates from the goddess.
The goddess Venus in mythology
It was believed that Venus is present at the conclusion of marriage and stores already entered into alliances. But only under the condition that both spouses contribute to the relationship. Then she gives them patience and lots of children.
But along with the patronage of marriage, the goddess Venus was the keeper of prostitutes. According to legend, when Rome was mired in debauchery, the inhabitants of the city erected a temple of Venus, which restored good morals.
In addition to the custodian of marriage and beauty, Venus is a mediator between people and gods and the progenitress of the Roman people. It was believed that she allowed the Romans to preserve their greatness and helped them to win victories in battles. Therefore, it is also called the Venus of the Victorious.
Roman mythology uses parallels with the Greek, so there are cases when the name of Venus means the Greek goddess Aphrodite, and vice versa.
The goddess portrayed amazingly beautiful and charming girl. Young, slim, with long golden hair, the beauty goddess Venus won the heart of more than one man. Adonis, Mars, Anchises fell at her feet.
As a rule, she appeared naked in front of a man, but sometimes she put a cloth on her hips.
The Roman goddess Venus is a controversial goddess, she simultaneously embodies female chastity and physical attraction. In the character there is both calm and prudence, and frivolity and playfulness.
In the retinue of Venus were three maids - Graces. They embodied beauty, joy, pleasure, grace and grace. Their main virtues were considered beneficence and courtesy. Symbols of Graces were apple, rose, myrtle.
Her entourage also included her son Cupid. He embodied love and passion. According to legend, he was born among pastures and horse herds, so at first he was a rural god and ensured the fecundity of the herd. And only later became the patron of human love.
Venus in painting and sculpture
Since the era of ancient Rome and ending with modernity, this character of mythology has inspired many artists.
So far, many statuettes, made by eminent and unknown masters, are kept in the most famous museums of the world.
Of course, in the pantheon of Rome there were beautiful goddesses, but Venus is perfection, an unattainable image.She was depicted in a mosaic of temples; as decorations, the houses of rich citizens were decorated with statues of the goddess.
Venus de Milo is the most famous sculpture attributed to the sculptor Agesandra. Today it is kept in the most famous museum of the world - the Louvre. Venus de Milo is considered the benchmark of feminine beauty: she has beautiful facial features, a proud posture and body proportions that delight more than one creative person.
According to history, the hands of the statue were lost in the conflict between the Turks and the French, who wanted to get a beautiful image of the goddess. When she was taken to the Louvre, local art historians pronounced the verdict - it is already impossible to restore hands.
The peak of the popularity of Venus came in the Renaissance. Many artists captured her image on their canvases. The most famous painting of the time came from under the brush of Sandro Botticelli. Each era of the wizard added different details to its appearance.
Each master wanted to reveal fully the image of the goddess: beauty, grace and mystery. Each had his own vision, and there are not two identical statues and paintings that depict Venus.
In modern art, the image of the goddess is used as the embodiment of the ideal female body, without mythological overtones. In other cases, artists depict their beloved in the image of Venus.
In addition to the goddess herself, artists painted her retinue. Most often on canvas, Graces were depicted nude, less often - in translucent clothes. This was done in order to show their unearthly beauty and purity.
In literary works, the goddess Venus and Graces were patrons of spiritual love and passion. Often, the name of the goddess meant the fruit.
Just as in painting, in literature, Venus was described in different ways, according to the writer's idea.
Many poets in different epochs sang Venus in their poems: Angelo Poliziano, Rainer Maria Rilke, Afanasy Fet, Pavel Antokolsky, even Vladimir Mayakovsky.
In the philosophical work of Marsilio Ficino, an important figure was the Heavenly Venus, which symbolized humanism, mercy, love and beauty, which led mortals to heaven.