The motto of the Olympic Games: how it sounds, history and interesting facts
The motto of the Olympic Games consists of 3 words in Latin: Citius, Altius, Fortius! But few modern people know this.
What is the motto of the Olympic Games in Russian? "Faster, higher, stronger". This simple phrase perfectly captures the essence of the Olympics, the spirit of competition and the desire to win. But where did this motto come from?
Competitions in Ancient Greece
To get started is to talk about the Olympics in general. The Olympic Games have very ancient roots. Their very name refers to the ancient Greek gods. In fact, the Olympic Games are called not only for this. They were held in the settlement of Olympia, where the sanctuary was located. The stadium, located near the Temple of Zeus, could accommodate 45 thousand people. The Olympic Games in Greece were very different in their spirit from the modern Olympics, which was the product of Western civilization with its ideals of tolerance and politeness.We should not forget that no matter how far the countries of Europe are from religion, the modern world has shaped Christianity with its appeal for mercy. Ancient Greece was the pre-Christian world. And with all the height of its culture, philosophy, ethical ideals, its mentality was harsh, as in the whole ancient world.
The Olympiad in ancient Greece was a harsh and even bloody spectacle. Not all athletes survived in fistfights or chariot races. Why did these young, healthy people who have their whole lives ahead take the risk? The ancient Greeks had slightly different values than our contemporaries. Winning the Olympics was the key to ... immortality! The religion of the Hellenes did not imply an afterlife. Although it included ideas about the dark underworld, Tartarus, these ideas were gloomy and not reassuring.
But to overcome their own mortality was due to fame. The hero lived for centuries - in the songs composed in his honor, in sculptured sculptures. Victory brought glory not only to the winner. As now athletes defend the honor of the country, so in Ancient Greece they fought for the honor of the city. Policy cities were autonomous, they are often called city-states. There was only one winner in each competition. There were no silver and bronze medals.All the losers returned home in disgrace. Sometimes the loss was considered worse than death.
Another interesting aspect of the ancient Olympiad was that the participants competed completely naked. Only men participated there. Women could, for example, exhibit their chariots for competition, but they themselves did not control them. By the way, the word "gymnast" comes from the word "hymn" - nude. The bodies of the athletes inspired poets and sculptors. They praised not only their will and courage, but also the perfection of their bodies. True, public exposure provoked homosexuality.
Women and the Olympics
Strangely enough, unmarried girls were allowed to enter the stadium, but married women were not allowed on pain of death. Violators were dumped into the abyss.
Were there women's competitions in ancient Greece? Yes, they were too! They were called Heraic Games - in honor of Hera, the wife of Zeus. Unmarried girls competed in running. Such harsh competitions, like men, they did not have. They did not participate naked, but in a short tunic that opened the right breast. The winners often became Spartans - in Sparta girls trained on a par with boys.
It is not known whether the Greeks had the Olympic motto. Of course, in ancient times many events had their own symbolism, usually ritual. And yet the story is silent about it. Would the ancient Greeks like the motto of the modern Olympic Games? On the one hand, yes, the rush to excellence and the will to win were not weaker, or even stronger than those of modern athletes. On the other hand, the Greeks did not have such a thing as a record. They compared only the achievements of athletes in one competition, but not the results of past Olympiads. And it is not surprising, because at their disposal there were no timers and stopwatches, cameras capable of recording movement up to a split second. Moreover, it did not fit their philosophy.
Creation of modern competitions
The history of the motto and symbols of the Olympic Games also refers us to very different centuries. All this happened relatively recently, if we compare these events with the times of ancient Greece.
The motto and symbols of the Olympic Games were adopted by Pierre de Coubertin. This French baron and public figure put forward the idea of reviving the Olympic Games, inspired by the excavations at Olympia.In addition, not so long ago, France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian war. The baron decided that one of the main reasons for the defeat was poor physical training of the French. Therefore, it was a good idea to popularize the sport and give world fame to the achievements of athletes. In addition, he hoped that sporting events could partly replace wars and become a peaceful way to resolve conflicts. Unfortunately, the reality has shown that the Olympics did not save the world from subsequent wars. But it has become an excellent spectacle and incentive for young people to pay attention to sports.
November 25, 1892 Coubertin made a game project at the Sorbonne. In June 1894, the International Sports Congress in Paris approved the Olympic Charter. At the same time it was decided to hold the first Olympic Games of our time. She passed in Athens in 1896.
The motto of the Olympics was not coined by Pierre Coubertin himself. The French priest mentioned these three words in his sermon. Coubertin saw in them an excellent slogan and adopted.
These words are minted on all the medals, as well as on the Olympic flame.
What is the motto of the Olympic Games considered unofficial? This one also exists.“The main thing is not victory, but participation” - this statement became a catch phrase, which is sometimes spoken with ridicule, sometimes with a sincere desire to console. Oddly enough, this motto arose from a sermon. The Bishop of Pennsylvania from the pulpit of St. Peter’s Cathedral said that the Games themselves are better than race and reward. Pierre Coubertin liked this phrase, and later at a government banquet, he said that it was important not only to win in the Olympics, but to participate. The history of the emergence of this phrase is not easy at all and it is connected with a specific case.
In 1908, the marathon length for the first time was 42 km 195 meters. Why not an integer? In previous years, it really was 40 km. However, when the Olympics were held in London, King Edward VII insisted that the route be changed and run past the balcony of Windsor Castle. This increased the distance and also complicated the task for athletes who trained to run exactly 40 km. Under the scorching heat that accompanied the 1908 Olympic Games, every extra 100 meters could be fatal. Italian Dorando Pietri almost came to the finish line first, noticeably ahead of rivals.But, suffering from heatstroke, at the very end of the road he lost his orientation and ran in the wrong direction. The judges stopped him and pointed the way. But the athlete was exhausted and fell. They helped him up. The last 500 meters were painful - the runner fell 4 times, and each time he was helped to stand up. In the end, Dorando Pietri still came to the finish line first. But, on the initiative of the Americans, his victory was not counted, since the athlete received outside help. America had its own benefit - American John Hayes ranked second, who was eventually given first place.
But, in all fairness, Dorando Pietri’s will to win did not go unnoticed. By order of Queen Alexandra, the athlete received exactly the same winner's cup, only made of gilded silver. The loser winner became famous all over the world, even songs were composed in his honor. It was these events that prompted the bishop to speak about the value of participation, which created the unofficial motto of the Olympic Games.
Symbols of the Olympics
The Olympic symbolism was developed and adopted later the motto - in 1913. But five rings are known everywhere. However, not everyone remembers what colors these rings are and why exactly those shades. On top are blue, black and red rings, below - yellow and green.They symbolize the unity of the five continents. The Olympic flag is a white cloth with a five-ring colored symbol on it.
The history of the motto, symbols and rituals of the Olympic Games is quite long and heterogeneous. The ritual was developed gradually. What ceremonies are necessarily present at every game? Of course, the opening and closing of the Olympics. In the modern world it is a bright and colorful show. The most important ritual of the Olympic Games - the carrying of the Olympic flame. This fire is lit by female priestesses using a sun mirror. It takes place in Greece, the birthplace of the Olympics. Then the torch with fire is delivered to the venue of the games. Usually it is carried by torchbearer runners, passing on the relay to each other.
Olympiad and Russia
Participate in the games happened and the Russian Empire. True, only a few athletes were exposed to the first few games. The national team also performed in 1912. It consisted of 250 people. The team was led by the Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich, who participated in equestrian sport competitions. But in the following years, first World War I prevented, then the revolution.After that, the Soviet Union participated in the games. And he joined them late, only in 1952. But the Soviet athletes had excellent training. The USSR national team usually did not take below 2nd place in the overall standings.
The successes of modern Russia are not so impressive, and yet our country usually occupies a worthy place in the overall standings, and a large number of athletes receive gold medals.
The slogan of the Sochi Olympics
In 2014, the Olympics took place in Sochi. And she had her own slogan. The motto of the Olympic Games in Sochi also consisted of three words: “Hot. Winter Yours. This formulation talked about the intensity of passions at sports competitions, also hinting at the southern resort city, about the time of the Olympics and the fact that it is impossible to remain indifferent.