The throwing of the nucleus: throwing technique and records
In the period of antiquity, the number of current speciessport was more than limited. However, already at that time the list of the very first Olympic Games included such discipline as throwing the nucleus. And today, not only men, but also women compete in it. From this article, you can learn in more detail the basic rules of this type of competition, the terminology used, and how to correctly cast the kernel.
The throwing of the nucleus is a contest for throwing outrange of a sporting projectile. The athlete's task is to make a throw with the pushing movement of the hand. By the way, not every athlete can engage in this discipline, since it requires good coordination and extraordinary physical strength. For information, in the Olympic Games women in this sport began to participate only in 1948. The record of throwing the nucleus in the USSR was established by the national athlete Natalia Lisovskaya. In 1987, she pushed the projectile at 22.63 m. The competitions were then held in a closed arena. Seven years earlier, in 1980, the Olympics were also held in the USSR. One of the types of competition was the throwing of the nucleus. The world record (Olympic) among women was established by the German athlete Ilona Slupianek. She pushed the projectile at 22.41 m. I must say that so far no one has been able to surpass her result.
Basic rules of competition
Any sports discipline has a numberrequirements, this sport is also no exception. The area on which the athlete makes a throw must be in the shape of a circle with a diameter of 2.135 meters. The athlete at the time of the throw is in a sector of 35 degrees, which is located in the center of this section. During the men's competitions use the core for a throw weighing 7,257 kg, for women it is common to use a 4-kilogram shell. The smoothness of the sport attribute should correspond to the seventh class of surface roughness. In this sport, the athlete wins the most distant shot. And its distance is measured from the outer part of the sector where the thrower is located, and to the point of incidence of the nucleus. Each participant has the opportunity to make 6 attempts. In the event that the number of athletes exceeds 8 people, after the 3 throws the best are selected. They continue the competition until the winner is identified.
Features of the discipline
Before each attempt, the athlete takesposition in the circle. The nucleus is fixed in the neck or chin. And during the pushing the hand should be in this position. It also requires that the projectile does not deviate beyond the shoulder line. During the competition, only one hand should be involved. In addition, use of improvised means (for example, gloves) is strictly forbidden. An athlete's throw is not counted if, at the moment of throwing, he crossed the line or at least stepped on it with the edge of the shoe. By the way, many athletes use this nuance for their own purposes. For example, when they want the next unsuccessful attempt, in their opinion, not to be taken into account.
The technique of throwing the kernel contains a number of concepts, the significance of which should be considered. These include:
- the launch of the projectile - this is the speed that it recruits from the moment of detachment from the hand of the athlete;
- angle of throw - this value, formed by the line of the horizontal and the speed vector of the sport attribute;
- the height of the release of the core is the distance from the point of separation to the surface of the sector;
- the angle of the terrain - this value is determined by the formation of lines that connect the point of release of the projectile and the center of its landing.
By the way, the above concepts are typical for all types of throwing.
Phase of flight
Conditionally, the throwing of the nucleus can be divided into 3 parts. It:
- the main effort;
- The process of inhibition.
The flight phase itself is carried out without influenceathlete under the laws of mechanics. When the athlete makes the acceleration, the projectile is given a preliminary speed (in our case it is approximately 2-3 m / s). During the execution of the second point, the speed of the projectile's flight is increased 4-5 times. This is achieved through intensive work of the muscles of the hands, the shoulder girdle and certain actions of the lower body. The main rule of a successful throw is that the athlete must "lead" the core behind him, and not himself to follow the shell. That is, the unmistakable performance of a push depends on the correctness of the chain of muscular efforts. The speed that the athlete can give to the core is due to his physical and technical readiness. The preliminary flight rate of the projectile is dialed to the optimal value gradually. And in the "main effort" phase, this value takes the most maximum value that the athlete can master. And in the final moment he passes these turns to a sports projectile.
Methods for increasing the speed of the kernel
In order to make the most successful throw,It is required to impart a rapid impetus to the flight of the projectile. The value of this parameter depends on the value of the manifestation of force, as well as the muscular effect on the nucleus, which occurs during a period of long acceleration.
To achieve this goal, each athlete uses a certain method of influencing the projectile. There are 4 main types of tricks:
1. Prolong the path of force.
2. Increase the impact on the projectile.
3. Decrease the period of validity for the kernel.
4. Use all of the above methods.
Athlete due to constant trainingsignificantly increases muscle strength. However, this is a long process, which, moreover, can not last indefinitely. And this is due to the fact that the body of each person has its maximum. As you know, the main increase in speed occurs at the time of the "main effort". But how to achieve this increase in turnover? After all, the athlete is in the strict limits of the rules and is limited to the place of the pushing. Many athletes, trying to achieve a stronger pace, make a change in the phase of acceleration. That is, instead of rectilinear, discontinuous acceleration, a rotational method is used. And only Baryshnikov came up with the technique of pushing with a turn. As practice has shown, each type of throwing the kernel has its own both positive and negative points. For this reason, each athlete chooses the most optimal option, depending on the individual characteristics and capabilities of the body.