Ventral hernia: symptoms and treatment
The epidemiology of hernias has changed significantly inbeginning of the XXI century due to the increased number of surgical operations. Postoperative ventral hernia is formed in those cases when the muscular aponeurotic layer of the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity diverges in the field of surgical intervention. This leads to paralytic relaxation of the muscles with their further atrophy. The anterior abdominal wall ceases to function as a carcass.
Causes of development
The ventral hernia develops for the following reasons:
- incorrectly performed suturing during surgery;
- suture inflammation;
- use of suture material of poor quality.
A weak postoperative scar provokes the development of a hernia. Additional factors that increase the risk of postoperative complications include:
- chronic lung diseases, diabetes, pancreatitis and other diseases;
- connective tissue disorders;
- inaccuracies in the postoperative recovery period (alcohol intake, exercise, non-compliance with diet and others).
Ventral hernia: stages
The development of a hernia occurs gradually. Initially, it is a small protrusion, almost without painful sensations, which can easily be inserted into the abdominal cavity in the prone position. Unpleasant sensations sometimes arise when lifting weights, sudden movements, bumps, sudden tension. In this case, there is a slight pain, and the formation somewhat increases in size. The more the hernia grows, the more soreness increases, accompanied by bouts and spasms. This stage is characterized by impaired intestinal functions: constipation, stasis, flatulence, nausea. General weakness develops, physical activity decreases. The deformity of the abdomen is invisible in the initial stage of the disease. Medium-sized formations are located near the navel, in the groin or on the side. See the ventral hernia, photo.
Large hernia occupies a significant areathe anterior wall of the abdomen and gives a tangible discomfort. The giant ventral hernia extends to the entire abdominal cavity and causes disruption to the entire body.
The main signals of the appearance of a hernia can be considered:
- nausea, vomiting;
- absence of defecation;
- severe pain;
- the impossibility of correcting the education in the supine position.
Ventral hernia: operation
Treatment of a hernia consists in carrying out an operation -hernioplasty. Depending on the location of the hernia and its stage, there are different methods of performing the operation. When the first is performed, the plastic of the hernia gates. As material, the patient's own tissues are taken. This method of treatment is shown at small sizes of formation - up to 5 cm. The operation rarely complicates, it is carried out quickly and with local anesthesia. Ventral hernia of large size is eliminated by the second method of hernioplasty. The material is a synthetic prosthesis (special mesh) that supports the intestine. To prevent the onset of a hernia, it is necessary to follow all the recommendations of doctors in the recovery postoperative period: to use a special bandage, to maintain a diet, to exclude physical activity.