What is antiquity? Definition
Very often in everyday life you can hear such a word for the time period of ancient Greece and Rome, as "antiquity". What is this period? The answer to this question can be found in this article.
What is antiquity? This is such an era in history that significantly influenced the further development of many states. Those countries considered to be examples of this period were located in the territories of Southern and Central Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa. The most prominent are such states as Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome. In these countries, the spiritual sphere of society has reached the highest point of development. They belong to the central part.
On the periphery of the ancient world, for example, in the Mediterranean, in the basin of the river called the Danube, as well as in North Africa, there were states that became part of the ancient world a little later.
Stages of Antiquity
What is antiquity? This is a long period of universal history, which is conventionally divided into several stages. The first of them began in ancient Greece before our era, namely at the end of II - the beginning of I millennium.In the middle of I millennium BC. er began a period of Italian antiquity.
Before the culture and art of ancient Greece became exemplary, there was an active development of the Crete-Mycenaean civilization that emerged at the turn of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. She influenced the historical path of the ancient states. The ancient world ended its existence in the middle of I millennium BC. er Historians believe that the final date of ancient history is 476 AD. In general, the length of antiquity is 1.5 thousand years.
Society and economy
What is antiquity? This is not only the culture and art of ancient Greece and Rome. It is also the socio-political structure of these states, their economy. What characterized these areas of life? The society was represented by a complex structure, which, of course, gave rise to deep internal contradictions. This was also one of the reasons why the ancient states shook numerous social conflicts, distemper, uprisings and even civil wars. The state was represented by a policy.
The economic development of the Ancient Greeks and Romans was quite successful for that time.Great value possessed private property. Even poor people owned at least a small piece of land, a boat or a workshop. More successful citizens, whose financial situation was good, to put it simply, to know, could afford large plots of land and more developed workshops.
This science has developed in ancient Greece. It was founded by the scientist Herodotus, thanks to whom information about the Greco-Persian wars was preserved. Subsequently, many philosophers and scientists made their contribution to such a science as the history of Antiquity. In the writings of the time, one can see attempts to justify the causes of an event, the role of a particular historical person, and so on. The works of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who, by the way, was depicted on many statues, are especially well-known to this day.
The era of Antiquity is closely connected with the development of architecture. First, urban development has reached a high level. So, all the cities were carefully planned and thoroughly built. There were theaters, gymnasiums (sports complexes), markets, stadiums, as well as temples. Roads on the streets were paved with shards of dishes, cobblestones or slabs of stone. The water supply and sewage system was also well developed.
Both the Greeks and the Romans could build complex structures, while adding interesting architectural solutions to the buildings. Thus, in ancient Greece, the order system appeared. The temples were built on a rectangular foundation; on the steps leading inwards, the believers gathered. In the temple was located a statue of a god. Therefore, many buildings were called something like this: "Temple of Nicky Apteros."
The Romans adopted many elements of Greek architecture, such as columns. However, they also brought something new to the art of antiquity. For example, arched structures and dome vaults. New durable building material was also invented by them. He is called: Roman concrete.
Theater and oratory
The culture of Antiquity is inextricably linked with such concepts as "theater" and "oratory." Indeed, the theater was one of the main types of mass shows. Through the play formed a civil consciousness. Playwrights such as Aeschylus and Sophocles, Aristophanes and Menander, are world famous. Ancient Roman theater initially was a direct imitation of Greek.However, the population of this state preferred comedy. Thanks to the addition of musical numbers, dances and even special effects, the performances became much more spectacular.
Oratory was the practical need of ancient society. It was during this period that the theory of eloquence was created, which was widely used in political struggle and litigation. The most famous speakers were Demosthenes and Cicero, who lived in ancient Greece and in ancient Rome, respectively.
What is antiquity? This is the period that left a deep light in the development of European states. One of the greatest cultural achievements of this time is fiction. In the main centers of art, namely in Greece and Rome, many literary genres have developed.
These include: poetry (lyrical and epic), tragedy, comedy, romance. Such works as the Iliad, Odyssey, Golden Ass are the best of their kind and belong to the ancient Greek culture. Ancient Roman literature is known from the poem Aeneid.
Impact on other states
Ancient antiquity had a great influence on other states.So, architectural elements were borrowed from here and used in many styles and directions. Statues of gods and historical figures became models of grace and beauty, the standard by which new works of art were subsequently created. Antiquity as a model was returned to the times of the Renaissance and Classicism, considering the works of this period to be the ideal of proportionality.
In the period of Antiquity the foundations of theatrical and oratory, as well as literature, were laid. Moreover, the social structure of the ancient states was partially adopted by more modern countries. And, finally, the language and writing of the period of antiquity formed the basis of many modern languages, such as English, German, Spanish, Italian, French, and even Russian. Many sciences were laid at this time, became the foundation for their further study.