What is croup? Croup: home treatment
What is croup? How does it arise? How does it manifest itself? This will be further discussed in the article. We will also tell you how to treat this ailment.
Inflammation of the airways, complicated by narrowing of the larynx (stenosis) is called croup. Its main manifestation is a croaking or barking dry cough.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the larynx, this disease is most susceptible to young children. Disease croup in children is more common between the ages of 6 months and 5 years and less often at an older age.
The larynx in children is narrow. It has a conical shape, and with edema that develops due to cough, it is even more narrowing. Because of this, the process of breathing is complicated. In severe cases, edema is able to completely block the breath of the child. But it should be noted that the disease is not independent. The pathological condition of the child with croup is a combination of the symptoms of other ailments.
For example, viral respiratory diseases can be the cause of the appearance of false croup:
In some cases, the disease can be triggered by a chemical or thermal burn of the larynx, allergic reactions. The cause of the described pathology may be a disease of other respiratory organs:
True and false
So what is croup? What kinds of it are? There are two types of this disease - true and false. Both diseases manifest themselves in the same way. But the causes of croup (true and false) are different. In either case, laryngeal edema develops and a characteristic cough appears.
False croup occurs as a result of viral respiratory diseases. Sometimes it is caused by pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococcus or staphylococcus. Chlamydia or mycoplasma, as well as fungal bacteria, can cause it much less often.
The cause of true croup is a severe airborne infection, diphtheria. The causative agent of this disease is diphtheria bacillus.
Stages of croup
In medicine, there are 4 stages of false croup.They are classified according to the degree of stenosis (narrowing) of the larynx:
- Compensated stenosis. At this stage, the child's state is calm, breathing is slightly speeded up, the mind is clear, there may be a slight blueness around the mouth. When breathing occurs, a visible retraction of the jugular fossa and skin on the ribs occurs. From time to time there is a characteristic cough.
- Compensated stenosis. The patient's condition worsens. Consciousness remains clear, but the child is anxious, especially during attacks. Breathing and pulse markedly increased, strong tension of the skin in the ribs, collarbone and larynx. When you inhale, whistling, hoarse sounds, croaking cough, voice hoarse appears. Manifestation of cyanosis in the nasolabial region.
- Decompensated stenosis. Breathing is superficial, pulse is greatly increased, confused consciousness, skin turns blue. Coughing attacks become more frequent.
- Asphyxia. Very serious condition. The patient is unconscious, the skin is bluish due to lack of oxygen, the pulse is very frequent, alternating with decelerations. Breathing is shallow and rare. In this condition, the child may have convulsions and loss of consciousness, with a strong asphyxia, death is possible.
Signs of false croup appear on the second or third day of viral infectious diseases of the upper respiratory system.
The main signs characterizing croup:
- characteristic barking / croaking cough, constantly repeated;
- shortness of breath and noisy breathing, especially in a restless state;
- hoarse voice.
During coughing attacks, the child is very anxious. The secondary symptoms of croup are sweating, increased breathing and pulse, fever, and nausea.
Due to increased respiratory failure, all signs increase, the skin of the child on the face and body turns blue, while inhaling, wheezing is heard, strong agitation is replaced by a retarded state, body temperature rises.
First aid to the child before the arrival of the doctor
Attacks of croup most often occur at night. This happens because a child, long in a horizontal position, the outflow of blood from the tissues and increases laryngeal edema. This condition is aggravated by dry hot air, which negatively affects the condition of the mucous membrane.
During a coughing attack, the child may be frightened, begins to be naughty and cry. It is very important to calm him down without showing anxiety.Since the child can feel it and even more nervous. And such his condition will strengthen an attack.
At the first manifestation of the symptoms of croup, parents need to call an ambulance. Until the doctor arrives, it is possible to alleviate the symptoms.
In the bathroom it is necessary to turn on the hot water and create a steam room, the child should be in the room for a while. Bring the baby to the open window or bring to the balcony, pre-wrapped warmly. Cool, moist air will help calm your cough.
It should be remembered that with this disease inhalation with hot steam, hot rubbing and baths are contraindicated. Treatment of croup cannot be carried out independently; only a doctor can prescribe it.
The diagnosis is established by an otolaryngologist or pediatrician.
First, the doctor examines the child, conducts auscultation (audition) of the lungs. In order to establish which form of the disease takes place - true or false croup - laboratory tests are appointed:
- bacterial culture of mucous larynx;
- blood test PCR and ELISA to eliminate the presence of mycoplasma and chlamydia;
- examination of the larynx - microlaryngoscopy;
- sowing on Wednesday Saburo, in order to eliminate the fungal infection.
Treatment of croup at home is to facilitate and localize the attacks, relieve swelling in the larynx. It is necessary to exclude factors that provoke the manifestation of attacks. Provide fresh air and do not give the child food that can irritate the inflamed larynx. You can not give citrus, honey, raspberry jam. Showing abundant warm drink.
The air in the room where the sick child is located should be cool and humid, not higher than + 19 ° C. Additionally, you can use humidifiers.
It is worth giving the child warm milk with Borjomi mineral water or soda. This drink dilutes the phlegm and moisturizes the mucous membrane of the larynx. To do this, take one part of the mineral water and two parts of milk. Instead of Borjomi, you can use any other alkaline water. Useful mineral inhalation using a nebulizer.
To facilitate attacks it is worth doing mustard baths for the feet. To do this, it is necessary to dissolve mustard powder (2 tablespoons) in well warm water and keep feet in water for 5-10 minutes. In the presence of a temperature above 37.5 ° C, warming the legs is contraindicated.
Useful warm compresses on the chest and larynx, banks on the back. To carry out treatment at home is possible only with the manifestation of false croup in the initial stage and children from 3 years. In other cases, the child needs hospitalization. The treatment is carried out in a hospital under the supervision of doctors. And at stage III or IV of the disease, hospitalization in the intensive care unit and intensive care is provided.
Drug treatment of the disease in children: what drugs are used?
We found out what croup is. And how to treat it? What medicines are used? In order to relieve spasms of the larynx, the child can be given anesthetic drug "No-silo". To reduce laryngeal edema, antihistamines are indicated. At high temperatures, antipyretics, such as Nurofen or Panadol, are used. When the temperature rises above 38 degrees, you should give "Paracetamol", "Ibuprofen".
You can not give the child protivokashlevye drugs without a doctor's prescription.
Since a false croup causes a viral infection, antibiotics are not used in its treatment. The doctor prescribes antibacterial and antifungal drugs if the disease is caused by a fungal or bacterial infection.
For severe laryngeal edema, the doctor prescribes these drugs:
Antihistamines are also used ("Suprastin", "Dimedrol", "Fenistil"), and cough suppressants ("Codeine", "Thermopsis", "Prenoxdiazine", "Oxeladin") are also prescribed.
If possible, it is better to take antitussives in the form of syrups. To alleviate the state help pastilles and lozenges, aerosol preparations. Sedatives are also prescribed: motherwort tincture, valerian, medication with bromine.
Features of the false view
A disease like croup scares parents. However, their correct actions and timely assistance of specialists will help to avoid the consequences of the disease. Since this is mainly a childhood disease, parents are interested in such questions:
- until what age should be on guard;
- how false croup is transmitted in children.
Symptoms and treatment of this disease are also interesting for moms and dads.
There is no unequivocal answer to the question, up to what age a baby may have such a disease. Since everything is purely individual.The croup syndrome affects children from 6 months to two years. As a child grows up, the likelihood of croup occurrence decreases. In children after the age of five, the syndrome does not manifest itself.
Another pressing question is how is false croup transmitted in children? Here, experts advise to isolate the child for the period of treatment. As the virus is transmitted by airborne droplets.
The causes of the false form of the disease
What are the known causes of false cereal in children? Most often, the syndrome manifests itself in children with weakened immune systems. It is also believed that when fed naturally, babies are less susceptible to the disease than babies on artificial.
The appearance of croup is promoted by:
- tendency to allergic reactions;
- overweight in a baby;
- the presence of diathesis.
The transfer of birth trauma to newborns or fetal hypoxia increases the possibility of the manifestation of the syndrome.
Possible complications after an illness
False croup, diagnosed at the first stage, quickly cured and has no complications. After the start of therapy in this phase of the disease, the child is rapidly recovering.
In the case of diagnosing the syndrome in the second and third stages, without proper treatment, a bacterial infection may be added.As a result, purulent film appears on the larynx, the infection spreads further along the respiratory tract, affecting nearby organs. May develop:
- acute tracheobronchitis.
Prevention of the disease in children
We found out what croup is, now let's talk about the prevention of this disease. The described disease is a combination of symptoms caused by viral infections. Prevention of the syndrome is:
- in general hardening of the child;
- vitamin therapy;
- use of natural phytoncids (onions, garlic).
In order to attacks did not recur, you should monitor the humidity and cleanliness in the room, doing regular wet cleaning and airing.
The child should be dressed according to the weather so that he does not overheat and does not overcool. The baby needs frequent walks in the fresh air and a balanced diet.
Now you know what true and false croup is in children. We also discussed the symptoms and treatment of the pathology in detail in the article. Again, with timely diagnosis and proper treatment of the disease, the prognosis is favorable.However, parents should not forget that relapses of false croup are possible. For this home should be the necessary means for first aid in the event of an attack.