What is tetanus?
Tetanus is an infectious disease. The causative agent of tetanus is the microbe "clostridium tetany", which affects the central nervous system and manifests itself in the form of convulsions of all skeletal muscles. It should be noted that convulsions of the respiratory musculature quite often can lead to the death of the patient. In addition, the disease is quite painful, because with full consciousness, a person loses control over his body and experiences terrible pain. Therefore, we will consider ways to protect against this terrible disease and some preventive measures. The causative agent of tetanus lives in the intestines of herbivores. From there, it enters the soil along with the excrement. Moreover, most of these microbes are located in the chernozem, highly moistened soils, as a rule, these are southern areas with developed agriculture.
How does tetanus infection occur?
The appearance of this disease is directly related toinjuries. The causative agent, getting on clothes and a skin, can easily get into an organism even through absolutely small damages. The most common causes of tetanus infection are microtraumas of the lower extremities: injections with sharp objects or thorns of bushes, as well as various injuries of the feet when walking barefoot. Very often lead to the development of tetanus is the splinter. In addition, this disease can develop and with frostbites, burns, violation of hygiene rules in parturient women, with criminal abortions and even in newborns. It should be noted that the incubation period for tetanus has a duration of 1 to 30 days, but most often its duration is 5-14 days. After this time, there may be a headache, increased irritability, sweating, and the muscles around the wound will be strained and will twitch.
And what happens when a tetanusfalls into the wound? Here it should be noted that this microorganism penetrates into organs and systems with blood flow, where it begins to produce a special toxin. The action of this toxin is the cause of the development of a serious illness that causes muscle spasm or "muscle hardening". The danger of tetanus is also that the development of this disease can appear after a very long time after the injury, which can reach even a few months. If you understand in time that a person has contracted this disease, many problems can be avoided. Therefore, it is important to be able to recognize tetanus in time.
Symptoms of tetanus
One of the first signs of this diseaseis the convulsive contraction and tension of the chewing muscles. Therefore, it is very difficult for the patient to open his mouth. If the case is heavy, then the mouth can not be opened at all, the teeth are tightly compressed. Following this symptom begins the development of seizures of facial muscles, which gives the face of the patient a peculiar expression: it can be crying and smiling at the same time. At the same time, the forehead is frowning, and the mouth is stretched wide. After a while the patient begins to have trouble swallowing, there is a painful tension in the muscles of the occiput. In this case, the head tilts back. It is because of a strong spasm of the dorsal muscles that the patient begins to curl up in the bed in the form of an arch. It rests only on the heels and the back of the head. After a while, there is a tension in the muscles of the abdomen and limbs.